DNA barcoding identifies the first North American records of the Eurasian moth, <i>Eupithecia pusillata</i> (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)


  • Jeremy R. deWaard University of British Columbia Department of Forest Sciences Forestry Sciences Centre Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 Royal British Columbia Museum, Entomology 675 Belleville Street Victoria, BC V8W 9W2
  • Leland M. Humble University of British Columbia Department of Forest Sciences Forestry Sciences Centre Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4
  • B. Christian Schmidt Canadian Food Inspection Agency Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes K.W. Neatby Building 960 Carling Avenue Ottawa, ON KIA 0C6


Eupithecia pusillata, Eupithecia interruptofasciata, Eupithecia niphadophilata, jumper pug moth, Juniperus, non-indigenous species, invasive species, DNA barcoding


The first North American records of the jumper pug moth, Eupithecia pusillata (Dems & Schiffermuller, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), brought to our attention using DNA barcoding, are presented. Documentation and collection localities suggest it was introduced, established, and likely has persisted, at least in the Greater Vancouver area of British Columbia since the mid-1970s. We discuss the integration of DNA barcoding into routine biosurveillance and forest insect surveys to prevent such delay in recognition of non-indigenous species—in this case, 34 years.


Ahrens, D., M.T. Monaghan and A.P. Vogler. 2007. DNA-based taxonomy for associating adults and larvae in multi-species assemblages of chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 436449.

Armstrong, K.F. 2010. DNA barcoding: a new module in New Zealand’s plant biosecurity diagnostic toolbox. EPPO Bulletin 40: 91—100.

Armstrong, K.F. and S.L. Ball. 2005. DNA barcodes for biosecurity: invasive species identification. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 360: 1813-1823.

Ball, S.L. and K.F. Armstrong. 2006. DNA barcodes for insect pest identification: a test case with tussock moths (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 337-350.

Barr, N.B. 2009. Pathway analysis of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) using mitochondrial DNA. Journal of Economic Entomology 102: 401-411.

Bolte, K.B. 1990. Guide to the Geometridae of Canada (Lepidoptera). VI. Subfamily Larentinae. 1. Revision of the genus Eupithecia. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 151: 1-253.

deWaard, J.R., J.-F. Landry, B.C. Schmidt, J. Derhousoff, J.A. McLean and L.M. Humble. 2009. In the dark in a large urban park: DNA barcodes illuminate cryptic and introduced moth species. Biodiversity and Conservation 18: 3825-3 839.

Floyd, R., J. Lima, J.R. deWaard, L.M. Humble and R.H. Hanner. 2010. Common goals: incorporating DNA barcoding into international protocols for identification of arthropod pests. Biological Invasions 12: 2947—2954.

Gilligan, T.M. and M.E. Epstein. 2009. LBAM ID, Tools for diagnosing light brown apple moth and related western U. S. leafrollers (Tortricidae: Archipini). Colorado State University, California Department of Food and Agriculture, and Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, USDA, APHIS, PPQ. [online]. Available from http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/LBAM/about.html [accessed 30 August 2010]

Humble, L.M., J .R. deWaard, and M. Quinn. 2009. Delayed recognition of the European poplar shoot borer, Gypsonoma aceriana (Duponchel) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Canada. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 106: 61-70.

Karsholt, O. and E.J. van Nieukerken. 2010. Fauna Europaea: Geometridae. Fauna Europaea version 2.2 [online]. Available from http://www.faunaeur.org [accessed 24 August 2010].

Lafontaine, J .D. 2004. Noctuoidea: Noctuidae (part), Noctuinae (part - Agrotini). Pages 1-385. In The moths of North America, fasc. 27.1. Edited by Hodges, R.W. Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, Washington, DC.

Marshall, S.A., R.S. Anderson, R.E. Roughley, V. Behan-Pelletier and H.V. Danks. 1994. Terrestrial arthropod biodiversity: planning a study and recommended sampling techniques. A brief. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Canada 26: Supplement. 33 pp.

McDunnough, J .H. 1949. Revision of the North American species of the genus Eupithecia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 93: 533-728.

Miller, M.A., G.C. Muller, V.D. Kravchenko, A. Junnila, K.K. Vernon, C.D. Matheson and A. Hausmann. 2007. DNA-based identification of Lepidoptera larvae and plant meals from their gut content. Russian Entomological Journal 15: 427-432.

Mironov, V. 2003. Larentiinae II (Perizomini and Eupitheciini). In A. Hausmann (ed.): The Geometrid Moths of Europe 4: 1-463.

Mironov, V.G., A.C. Galsworthy and U. Ratzel. 2008. A survey of the Eupithecia fauna (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) of the Westem Himalayas: Part II. Transactions of the Lepidopterological Society of Japan 59: 117-143.

Nadel, R.L., B. Slippers, M.C. Scholes, S.A. Lawson, A.E. Noack, C.F. Wilcken, J.P. Bouvet and M.J. Wingfield. 2010. DNA bar-coding reveals source and pattems of Thaumastocoris peregrmus invasions in South Africa and South America. Biological Invasions 12: 1067-1077.

Powell, J .A. and P.A. Opler. 2009. Moths of western North America. University of California Press, Berkeley, 369 pp.

Ratnasingham, S. and P.D.N. Hebert. 2007. BOLD: the barcode of life data system (http:// www.barcodinglife.org). Molecular Ecology Notes 7: 355-364.

Roques, A., M.A. Auger-Rozenberg and S. Boivin. 2006. A lack of native congeners may limit colonization of introduced conifers by indigenous insects in Europe. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 2993 13.

Rougerie, R., M.A. Smith, J . Femandez-Triana, C. Lopez-Vaamonde, and P.D.N. Hebert. Molecular analysis of parasitoid linkages (MAPL): gut contents of adult parasitoid wasps reveal larval host. Molecular Ecology. In press

Scheffer, S.J., M.L. Lewis, and R.C. Joshi. 2006. DNA barcoding applied to invasive leafrniners (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in the Philippines. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99: 204-210.

Scoble, M.J. (Ed) 1999. Geometrid moths of the world: a catalogue (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Natural History Museum, London, UK and CSIRO Publishers, Collingwood, Australia, 1016 pp.

Scoble, M.J. and A. Hausmann. 2007 . Online list of valid and available names of the Geometridae of the World [online]. Available from http://www.lepbarcoding.org/geometridae/species_checklists.php [accessed 27 August 2010].

Sheppard, S.K., M.L. Henneman, J . Memmott and W.O. Symondson. 2004. Infiltration by alien predators into invertebrate food-webs in Hawaii: a molecular approach. Molecular Ecology 13: 2077-2088.

Shokralla, S., G.A.C. Singer and M. Hajibabaei. 2010. Direct PCR amplification and sequencing of specimens’ DNA from preservative ethanol. Biotechniques 48: 305-306.

Siddall, M.E. and R.B. Budinoff. 2005. DNA-barcoding evidence for widespread introductions of a leech from the South American Helobdella mserialis complex. Conservation Genetics 6: 467472.

Simonsen, T.J., R.L. Brown and F.A.H. Sperling. 2008. Tracing an invasion: phylogeography of Cactoblas— its cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the United States based on mitochondrial DNA. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101: 899-905.

Skou, P. 1986. The Geometroid Moths of North Europe. Scandinavian Science Press. 348 p.

Smith, M.A., E.S. Eveleigh, K.S. McCann, P.C. McCarthy and K.I. Van Rooyen. Barcoding a quantified food web: crypsis, concepts, ecology and hypotheses. PLoS ONE. In press.

Van Sickle, A., R.L. Fiddick and C.S. Wood. 2001. The forest insect and disease survey in the Pacific Region. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 98: 169-176.

Weigt, H.-J. 1993. Die Bhitenspanner Mitteleuropas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae: Eupitheciini). Teil 5. Dortmunder Beitrage zur Landeskunde 27: 5-108.

Wilson, A.D. and N.M. Schiff. 2010. Identification of Sirex noctilio and native North American woodwasp larvae using DNA barcodes. Journal of Entomology 7: 60-79.