A list of plant-feeding Lepidoptera introduced into British Columbia

David R. Gillespie, Beth I. Gillespie


Each of 48 species of plant-feeding Lepidoptera known to be foreign to North America and to occur in British Columbia is briefly summarized with its history and importance. Those feeding on stored products are not indicated.


Lepidoptera; pest introductions

Full Text:



Adkin, R. 1924. Apple fruit attacked by Tortrix heparana. Entomologist 57:188-189.

Adkin, R. 1931. Batodes anguistiorana Haw. bred from stored apples. Entomologist 64:214.

Alford, D.V. 1974. Lepidopterous caterpillars damaging strawberry blossom. Pl. Path. 23:48-49.

Alford, D.V. 1975. Specific feeding preferences of tortricid larvae on flowering strawberry plants. Pl. Path. 24:54-58.

Alford, D.V. 1976. Some observations on the effect of pests on strawberry yields. Ann. Appl. Biol. 84:440-444.

AliNaizee, M.T. 1977. Bionomics and life history of a filbert leafroller Archips rosanus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 70:391-401.

Andison, H. 1937. The juniper webworm (Dichomeris marginella Fabr.). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Col. 33:3-5.

Anon. 1900. Report of the Ent. and Bot. Ann. Rept. Expt’al Fms: Append. Rept. Min. Agr. Expt’al Fms. Sessional papers XXXV (6):16, p 238.

Anon. 1903. Ann. Rept. Expt’al Fms.: Append. Rept. Min. Agr. Expt'al Fms. Sessional Papers XXVIII (6):16 pp. 165-167, 184-186.

Anon, 1906. Report of the Ent. and Bot. Ann. Rept. Expt'al Fms.; Append. Rept. Min. Agr. Expt’al Fms. Sessional Papers XLI (6):16, p 67.

Anon. 1912. Ent. Soc. Ont., Ann. Rept. 43:15.

Anon. 1915. B.C. Dept. Agr., 9th Ann. Rept. 1914. pp/ R65, R92-93.

Anon. 1921. B.C. Dept. Agr., 15th Ann. Rept. 1920, pp. Q3, Q20, Q27.

Anon. 1927. CIPR. 5:39.

Anon, 1936. The Diamond-back moth. Min. Agr. Fish., Britain. Advisory Leaflet No. 195.

Anon. 1951-1952. Distribution maps of insect pests. Ser. A. Nos 8 and 9. Commonwealth Inst. of Entomol. 1951-1959.

Anon. 1954. B.C. Dept. Agr. 49th Ann. Rept. 134 pp.

Anon. 1968. Outbreaks and new records. Pl. Prot. Bull. FAO 16 No. 5:92-94; No. 6:114-115.

Anon, 1979a. Information package on the gypsy moth in the Kitsilano Area. Prepared jointly by B.C. Min. Agr. and Can Dept. Agr. 6 pp.

Anon, 1979b. Coop. Pl. Pest Rept. 1:720.

Anon. 1980. Coop. Pl. Pest Rept. 5:689.

Arestegui, P.A. 1977 [Pest of potato in Andahuaylas-Apurimac]. Revista Pervana de Entomologia. 19:97-98. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1979. 67:31.

Arnott, D.A. and J.C. Arrand. 1960. CIPR. 38:12.

Arthur, A.P. 1966. The present status of the introduced skipper, Thymelicus lineola (Ochs.) (Lepidoptera; Hesperiidae) in North America and possible methods of control. Can. Ent. 98:622-628.

Bacon, O.G. 1960. Control of potato tuberworm in potatoes. J. Econ. Ent. 53: 868-871.

Baggiolini, M. 1967. The apple moth, Recurvaria leucatella, a little known pest of fruit trees in Switzerland, Agr. romande. 6:111-114. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1970 58:211.

Baker, W.L. 1972 Eastern Forest Insects. U.S. Dept of Agr. For. Ser. Pub 41175. 642 pp.

Balaz, K.B. and J. Bodor. 1969. Larenmorphologie an Erdbeere lebender Wicklerarten. [The larval morphology of Tortricids living on strawberries]. Acta. Phytopath. Acad. Sci. Hung. 4(1):77-79. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1970. pp. 345.

Bauman, N.G. and B.A. Sugden, 1968. Juniper webworm in British Columbia. Can. For. Ser., For. Ins. Dis. Survey, For. Pest Leaflet 8. 3 pp.

Beirne. B.P. 1971. Pest insects of annual crop plants in Canada. I. Lepidoptera. Mem. Ent. Soc. Can. 78. 124 pp.

Belosel’skaya, Z.G. 1963. Argyresthis conjugella in the Leningrad region. Zash. Rast. 8(2): 51. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1964. 52:323.

Belov, U., K. Yu., B. Shurovenkov, and N.A. Taran. 1978. [Care — the meadow moth!] Zash. Rast. 3:11-13. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1979. 67:14.

Benoit, P. (comp.) 1975. Noms francais d'insects au Canada. Agriculture Quebec. Pub QA38-R4-30.

Bergmann, A. 1951-1955. Die Grassschmetterlinge Mitteldeutschlands I-V, Urania Verlag. Jena. in Can. Ent. 100:800.

Bethune, C.J.S. 1869. Larvae infesting the parsnip. Can. Ent. 2:1-4.

Bethune, C.J.S. 1886. Remedies for noxious insects. Ent. Soc. Ont., Ann. Rept. 17. pp. 55-64.

Bibolini, C. 1970. Biology and damage in the Pisa district of Peridroma saucia Hb (Lep. Noctuidae) with reference to its geographic distribution, world dietology and relative control measures. Frustula Entomologica 10:98 pp. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1975, 63:138.

Blackmore, E.H. 1921. B.C. Prov. Mus. Nat. Hist. Rept. 1920. pp. 22-32.

Blackmore, E.H. 1923. Ent. Rept. Prov. Mus. Nat. Hist. B.C, 1922. pp. 18-35.

Bohm. H. 1962. Auffallende Schaden an Apfelbaumen. [Noticeable damage to apple trees]. Pflanzenarzt 15: 28-29. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1962, 50:302.

Bolte, K.B. and E. Munroe. 1979. Hemithea aestivaria in British Columbia: Characters of a palaearctic genus and species not previously known from North America (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae). Can. Ent. 111:1121-1126.

Boness, M. 1976. Trials to control the fruit tree leaf roller Archips podana with pheromones. Zeit. Ange. Ent. 82:104-107.

Bradley, J.D., W.G. Tremewan, and A. Smith. 1973. British Tortricoid Moths. Cochylidae and Tortricidae: Tortricinae. The Ray Society, London. 251 pp.

Breakey, E.P. 1960. The blackheaded fireworm of cranberry: a pest of the evergreen huckleberry in western Washington. J. Econ. Ent. 53:1097-1099.

Briggs, J.B. 1957. Some features of the biology of the winter moth on top fruits. J. Hort. Sci. 32:108-125 B/A 33: 282, #3628.

Brittain, W.H. 1912. Report from the Okanagan District: Insects pest of the vear in Okanagan. Proc. Entomol Soc. Brit. Col. 2:13.

Brittain, W.H. 1914. Report from the Okanagan District. Insect pests of the year in the Okanagan. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Col. 4:14-19.

Brittain, W.H. and C.B. Gooderham. 1916. Popular and Practical Entomology: an insect enemy of the parsnip. Can. Ent. 48:37-41.

Burgess, A.G. 1921. The satin moth, an introduced enemy of poplars and willows. U.S. Dept. Agr. Circ. 167.

Burns, J.M. 1966. Expanding distribution and evolutionary potential of Thymelicus lineola, an introduced skipper, with special reference to its appearance in British Columbia. Can. Ent. 98:859-866.

Busck, A. 1914. A destructive pine-moth introduced from Europe, Euetria buoliana Schiff. J. Econ. Ent. 7:340-341.

Caesar, L. 1929. A new orchard pest in Ontario. Ent. Soc. Ont., Ann. Rept 60. pp. 140-141.

Caesar, L. 1937. Insects of the season in 1936 in Ontario. CIPR. 15:33.

Cameron, E. 1935. A study of the natural control of ragwort (Senecia jacobaea L.). J. Ecol. 23:265-322.

Carl, K.P. 1968. Thymelicus lineola (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and its parasites in Europe. Can. Ent. 100:785-801.

Chapman, P.J. and S.E. Lienk. 1971. Tortricid fauna of apple in New York. Special Pub, N.Y. State Agr. Exp. Sta., Geneva. Cornell Univ. 122 pp.

Chittenden, H.F. 1905. The imported cabbage worm (Pontia rapae Linn.). USDA Bur. Ent. Cir. No. 60.

Clark, J.F.G. 1930. Entomology in Rept. Prov. Mus. Nat. Hist. B.C. 1929. pp. 12-16.

Cochran, S.G. 1974. The birch casebearer in Newfoundland. Masters thesis, McGill University, P.Q., Canada. 126 pp. Cited in A.G. Raske. 1978.

Condrashoff, S.F. 1956. Advance of the satin moth, Stilpnotia salicis (L.) into the interior of British Columbia. J. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Col. 53:26-27.

Cornstock, J.H. and M.V. Slingerland, 1980. A leafroller on currant, Cacoecia rosana. Order Lepidoptera; family Tortricidae. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 23. pp. 119-121.

Coshan, P.F. 1974. The biology of Coleophora serratella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae). Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. 126:169-188.

Cram, W.T. 1973. Occurrence of the strawberry tortrix, Acleris comariana (Zeller), a new pest in British Columbia. J. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Col. 70:17.

Cram, W.T. and C.L. Neilson. 1978. Major insect and mite pests of berry crops in B.C. B.C. Min. Agr. Pub 78-12. 24 pp.

Cram, W.T. and N.V. Tonks. 1959. Note on the occurrence in British Columbia of the omnivorous leaf tier, Cnephasia longana (Haw.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), as a pest of strawberry. Can. Ent. 91:155-156.

Creelman, I.S. (ed.) 1966. CIPR. 44:12.

Creelman, I.S. (ed.) 1973. CAIPR. 51:32.

Crystal, R.N. 1937. Insects of the British sodlands. Frederic Warne & Co. Ltd., London. 338 pp.

Daviault, L. and R. Ducharme. 1966. Life history and habits of the green spruce leaf miner, Epinotia nanana (Treitschke) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Can. Ent. 98:693-699.

Davidson, R.H. and L.M. Peairs. 1966. Insect Pests of farm, garden and orchard. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. 675 pp.

Dawson, A.F. 1971a. Larch casebearer in British Columbia. For. Ins. Dis. Sur. Pest Leaflet. No. 34. 3 pp.

Dawson, A.F. 1971b. Satin moth in British Columbia. Dept. Environ. For. Ins. Dis. Sur. Pest Leaflet. No. 38. 3 pp.

DeMeirleire, H. 1966. Un ennemi des peupliers: le bombyx du saule. Phytoma 18:48-49.

Doganlar, M. and B.P. Beirne. 1978a. Croesia holmiana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a fruit tree leaf roller new to North America established in British Columbia, Canada. Can. Ent. 110:639-640.

Doganlar, M. and B.P. Beirne. 1978b. Fruit tree leaf-rollers (Lepidoptera) and parasites (Hymenoptera) introduced in the Vancouver district, British Columbia, Canada. J. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Col. 75:23-24.

Dognalar, M. and B.P. Beirne. 1979a. Pardia cynosbatella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an European leafroller new to North America. Can. Ent. 111:869.

Doganlar, M. and B.P. Beirne. 1979b. Pandemis heparana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a Tortricid new to North America established in British Columbia, Canada. Can. Ent. 111:970.

Doganlar, M. and B.P. Beirne. 1979c. Hemithea aestivaria, a geometrid new to North America, established in British Columbia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae). Can. Ent. 111:1121.

Downes, W. 1928. Notes on economic insects on Vancouver Island in 1928. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Col. 25:16-18.

Dustan, A.G. 1932. Vegetable insects and their control. Dom. of Can. Dept. of Agr. Bull. No. 161. p. 51.

Gibson, A. 1921. Common garden insects and their control. Can. Dept Agr., Ent. Div. Circ. No. 9.

Gibson, A. 1923. The specific name of the green budworm. Can. Ent. 55:243.

Gibson, A. 1924. The occurrence of the tortricid Cacoecia rosana L. in Canada. J. Econ. Ent. 17: 51-54.

Gillespie, D.R. 1981. Introduced and native leafrollers (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on berry crops in the Lower Fraser Valley, B.C. Doctoral thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C. 179 pp.

Gillespie. D.R. and T. Finlayson. 1981. Final-instar larvae of native Hymenopterous and Dipterous parasites of Operophtera spp. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in British Columbia. Can. Ent. 113:45-55.

Gillespie, D.R., T. Finlayson, N.V. Tonks, and D.A. Ross. 1978. Occurrence of the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera; Geometridae), on Southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Can. Ent. 110:223-224.

Gilliatt, F.C. 1934. Notes on the lesser budmoth, Recurvaria nanella Hbn. Sci Agr. 14:466-476.

Glendenning, R. 1924. The satin moth in British Columbia. Dept. Agr. Pamphlet no 50.

Glendenning, R. 1929. Host adaptation in the European satin moth. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Col. 26:34-38.

Glendenning, R. 1944. The parsnip webworm (Depressaria heracliana) and its control in British Columbia (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Col. 41:26-28.

Glover, T. 1874. Report of the Entomologist. Ann. Rept U.S. Dept Agr. for 1872. In S.I. Jones. 1935. pp 112-113.

Gould, H.J., T.J. Legowski, and E.C. Atkins. 1962. Surveys of pea moth damage on dry harvesting peas in East Anglia, 1957-1959. Pl. Path. 11:1-6.

Graf, J.E. 1917. The potato tuber moth. U.S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 427. 56 pp. In O.G. Bacon. 1960.

Handford, R.H. 1955. Insects of the season in British Columbia 1955. Compiled by C.L. Neilson, Provincial Entomologist, Vernon, B.C. p. 17.

Harcourt, D.G. 1962. Design of a sampling plan for studies on the population dynamics of the imported cabbage worm, Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Can. Ent. 94:849-859.

Harris, J.W.E. and D.A. Ross. 1975. European pine shoot moth. For. Pest Leaflet No. 18. 3 pp.

Harris, P. 1958. Life-history and natural control in British Columbia of Ocnerostoma piniariella Zell. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), a needle miner on white pine. Can. Ent. 90:627-631.

Harris, P., A.T.S. Wikinson, M.E. Neary, L.S. Thompson, and D. Finnamore. 1975. Establishment in Canada of the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), for controlling the weed Senecio jacobaea. Can. Ent. 107:913-917.

Harris, P., D. Peschken, and J. Milroy. 1969. The status of biological control of the weed, Hypericum performatum in British Columbia. Can. Ent. 101:1-15.

Harris, P. and D.P. Peschken. 1971. Hypericum perforatum L., St. John’s Wort (Hypericaceae), in biological control programmes against insects and weeds in Canada 1959-1968. Technical communication No. 4. C.I.B.C., Trinidad. pp 89-94.

Harris, T.W. 1841. A report on the insects of Massachusetts injurious to vegetation. 459 pp. Cited in P.J. Chapman and S.E. Lienk, 1971.

Hawkes, R.B. 1968. The cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae, for the control of the tansy ragwort. J. Econ. Ent. 61:499-501.

Heinrich, C. 1923. Revision of the North America moths of the subfamily Eucosminae of the family Olethreutidae. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 123.

Heinrich, C. 1956. American moths of the subfamily Phycitine. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 207. pp. 69, 99, 209.

Heppner, J.B. 1978. Eutromula pariana (Clerck) (Lepidoptera: Choreutidae), the correct name of the apple-and-thorn skeletonizer. J. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Col. 75:40-41.

Hodges, R.W., in Dominick, R. B., et al. 1974. The Moths of America North of Mexico, Fase. 6.2, Gelechioidae; Oecophoridae (in Part), E. W. Classey Ltd. and R.B.D. Publications Inc., London.

Holland, W.J. 1968. The moth book, a popular guide to a knowledge of the moths of North America. Dover Publications, Inc., New York. 479 pp.

Imms, A.D. 1964. A general textbook of entomology. Ninth edition, revised by O.W. Richards and R.D. Davis. Methuen and Co. Ltd., London. 886 pp.

Jackson, B.S. 1978. Records of the European skipper in Newfoundland, Can. Fld. Nat. 92:200.

Johansson, S. 1962. Insects associated with Hypericum I. 2. Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Homoptera and general remarks. Opusc. Ent. 27:175-192.

Matthey, W. 1967. The natural history of three oak-feeding Tortricids: Ptycholoma lecheana (1.), Pandemis cerasana (Hb.) and Batodes angustiorana (Haw.). Entomologist 100:115-120.

Maw, M.G. 1976. An annotated list of insects associated with Canada thistle Cirsium arvense in Canada. Can. Ent. 108:235-244.

Maxwell, C.W. and A.D. Pickett. 1957. Insects affecting the cranberry. Can. Dept. Agr. Pub. 810. pp. 25-28.

McDonald, S. 1963. Chemical control of the beet webworm on sugar beets in southern Alberta. J. Econ. Ent. 56:248-251.

McDunnough, J.H. 1957. Synonymic and biological notes on Coleophoridae (Lepidoptera). Amer. Mus. Novit. No 1827. pp 1-4. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1959, 47:117.

McLeod, J.H. 1951. Biological control investigations in British Columbia. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Col. 47:27-36.

McNeil, J.N. 1978. The number of larval stages of Thymelicus lineola (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in eastern Canada. Can. Ent. 110:1293-1295.

Metcalf, C.I. and W.P. Flint. 1962. Destructive and useful insects, their habits and control. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. 1087 pp.

Meyrick, E. 1927. A revised handbook of British Lepidoptera. Watkins Doncaster, 36 Strand, London, W.C. 672 pp.

Miczulski, B. and M. Koslinska. 1976. [Parasites of leafrollers (Tortricidae) occurring in apple orchards in some regions of Poland]. Pol. Pismo Ent. 46:165-178.

Miller, G.E. 1976. Native parasites of Coleophora laricella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) in British Columbia. Masters Thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C., Canada. 75 pp.

Minder, I.F. 1959. Leaf-rollers injurious to fruit crops in the flood-plain of the Oka river. Rev. Ent. URSS. 38:98-110. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1961, 49:341.

Mitchell, B.I. 1978. The biological control of potato tuber moth, Phthorimaca operculella (Zeller), in Rhodesia. Rhodesia Agr. J. 75:55-58. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1978, 67:85.

Molis, S. 1970. A mass outbreak of the satin moth (Stilpnotia salicis L.) on poplar in the south of the Lithuanian Republic (Soviet Union) in 1967. Acta Entomologica Lituanica 1:183-184. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1972, 60:968.

Molnar, A.C., J.W.E. Harris, and D.A. Ross. 1966. Can. For. Ser. Dept of the Envir. Annual Rept For. Ins. Dis Sur. 1966, Ottawa, Information Canada 1967. 142 pp.

Morris, R.F. 1980. Butterflies and moths of Newfoundland and Labrador. The macrolepidoptera. Res. Branch. Agr. Can. Publ. 169.

Munroe, E.. in R.B. Dominick et al. 1976. The moths of America north of Mexico, Fac. 13.2A, Pyraloidea (in part). E.W. Classey and R.D.D. Publications Inc., London.

Murdoch, R.F.M. 1967. The biology of the lilac leafminer, Gracillaria syringella Fabr. (Lep.: Gracillariidae). Quaest. Ent. 3:247-281.

Musich, E.N. 1976. [Cutworms as pests of berry crops]. Zash. Rast. 4:47. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1977, 65:722.

Myers, J.H. and B.J. Campbell. 1976. Predation by carpenter ants: A deterrent to the spread of cinnabar moth. Proc. Entomol Soc. Brit. Col. 73:7-9.

Naito, A. 1961. Studies on the distribution and abundance of the lima bean pod borer, Etiella zinckenella Treitschke, and the soybean pod borer Grapholitha [Leguminivora] glycinivorella Matsumura IV: On the distribution of the two species in the world and their host plants. Kontyu 29:39-55.

Nakamura, M. 1974. A ecological study of Epinotia solandriana (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae), a leaf roller on Betula ermani Cham. (Betulacae) in the Shigayama IPB area (Japan). Jap. J. Ecol. 24:186-193. Abstract in Ent. Abstr. 7:76.

Neacu, P. and I. Dragia. 1973. Donnes ecologiques sur certains Lepidoptera et Diptera mineurs dans la foret de Petresti, district Vrancae. Traveaux du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. “Grigore Antipa™ 13. pp. 195-202.

Neilson, C.L. 1957. Tree fruit insects. Handbook of the main economic insects of B.C. Part 4. 52 pp.

Neilson, C.L. 1969. Berry and grape insects. Handbook of the main economic insects of B.C. Part 3. B.C. Dept. of Agr. pp. 51-52.

Nikolova, V. 1962. Injurious leafrollers (Lep.: Tortricidae) and Gelechiids (Lep.: Gelechiidae) on fruit trees, and their parasites. Izv. nauch. Inst. Zash. Rast. 3:91-116. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1963, 51:554.

Nordin, G.L. and J.E. Appleby. 1969. Bionomics of the juniper webworm. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 62:287-292.

Nordlander, G. 1977. Observations on the insects fauna in apple trees in connection with tests on insecticides for integrated control. Vaxtskyddsnotiser 41:39-48. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1978, 66:2054.

Pengelly, D.H. 1961. Thymelicus lineola (Ochs) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), a pest of hay and pasture grasses in southern Ontario. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ont. 91:189-197.

Peterson, A. and G.J. Haeussler. 1926. The oriental fruit moth. U.S. Dept. Agr. Dept. Cir. 395. 27 pp.

Petherbridge, F.R. 1920. The life history of the strawberry tortrix, Oxygrapha comariana Zeller. Ann. Appl. Biol. 7:6-10.

Pfadt. R.E. 1971. Fundamentals of applied entomology. Macmillan Pub. Co., Inc., New York and Toronto. 693 pp.

Pierce, W.D. 1917. A manual of dangerous insects likely to be introduced in the United States through importations. U.S. Dept of Agr. 256 pp.

Plank. H.F. 1922. The blackheaded fireworm of cranberry on the Pacific coast. U.S. Dept. Agr. Bull. No. 1032. pp. 1-41.

Popov, P. 1978. Pests of a rape variety and their control. Rast. Zash. 26:24-26. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1979, 67:402.

Porter, B.A. 1924. The bud moth. U.S. Dept. Agr. Bull. No. 1273. Cited in E.J. LeRoux and C. Reimer. 1959.

Powell, J.A. 1964. Biological and taxonomic studies on Tortricine moths, with reference to the species in California. Univ. Calif. Press., Berkley and Los Angeles. 317 pp.

Prentice, R.M. et al. 1962. Forest Lepidoptera of Canada recorded by the forest insect survey. Vol. 2. Nycteolidae, Notodontidae, Noctuidae, Liparidae. For. Ent. and Path. Br. Can. Dept. For. Bull. 128 pp.

Prentice. R.M. et al. 1963. Forest Lepidoptera of Canada recorded by the forest insect survey. Vol. 3. Lasicampidae, Thyatiridae, Drepanidae, Geometridae. For. Ent. and Path. Br. Can. Dept. For. Pub. 1013. 543 pp.

Prentice, R.M. et al. 1965. Forest Lepidoptera of Canada recorded by the forest insect survey. Vol. 4. Microlepidoptera. Dept. For., Ottawa, Can., Pub. 1142. 840 pp.

Preston, W.B. and A.R. Westwood. 1981. The European skipper, Thymelicus lineola (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), in Manitoba and northwestern Ontario. Can. Ent. 113:1123-1124.

Putnam, W.L. 1963. The codling moth, Carpocapsa pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): a review with special reference to Ontario. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ont. (1962). pp. 22-60.

Raine, J. 1966. Life history of Dasystoma salicellum (Hbn.) (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae), a new pest of blueberries in British Columbia. Can. Ent. 98:331-334.

Rasle, A.G. 1978. Parasites of birch casebearer larvae in Newfoundland (Lep.: Coleophoridae). Entomophaga 23:103-108.

Razowski, J. 1966. World fauna of the Tortricini (Lep.: Tortricidae). Krakow, Poland.

Reeks, W.A. and C.C. Smith. 1956. The satin moth, Stilpnotia salicis (L.), in the Maritime provinces and observations on its control by parasites and spraying. Can. Ent. 88:565-579.

Reichert, A. 1932. Rosenschadlinge (Rose pests) die Kranke Pflanze, EX, nos, 5-4. 75-78. Dresden.

Rose, A.H. and O.H. Lindquist. 1977. Insects of eastern spruces, fir and hemlock. Dept Environ. Can. For. Ser., For. Tech. Rept 23.

Rose, A.H. and O.H. Lindquist. 1980. Insects of eastern larch, cedar and juniper. Dept. Environ., Can. For. Ser., For. Tech. Rept 28.

Rosenstiel, R.G., G.R. Ferguson, and D.C. Mote. 1944. Some ecological relationships of Cnephasia longana. J. Econ. Ent. 37:814-817.

Ross, W.A. and W. Putman. 1933. The economic insect fauna of Niagara peach orchards. Ann. Rept. Entomol. Soc. Ont. 64:36-41.

Ruhman, M. 1915. Insect notes from the Okanagan. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Col. 7:7-11.

Ruhman, M. 1928. The peach twig borer. B.C. Dept. Agr., Hort. Branch. Circ. 31 (revised ed.).

Ryan, R.B. and R.D. Medley, 1970. Test release of Itoplectis quadricingulatus against European pine shoot moth in an isolated infestation. J. Econ. Ent. 63:1390-1392.

Salman, K.A. 1929. Notes on the immature stages and biology of a birch casebearer. Ann. Entomol, Soc. Am. 22:480-488.

Sanders, G.E. 1915. Budmoth in Nova Scotia. Proc. Entomol. Soc. N.S. 1:84-87.

Sanders, G.E. and A.G. Dustan. 1919. The apple bud-moths and their control in Nova Scotia. Dom. of Can., Dept of Agr., Ent. Branch Bull. No. 16.

Saunders, W.E. 1916. European butterfly found at London, Ont. Ottawa Nat. 30:116. Cited in J.M. Burns. 1966.

Schmidl, L. 1972. Studies on the control of ragwort, Senecio jacobaea L., with the cinnabar moth, Callimorpha jacobaeae L. (Arctiidae: Lepidoptera), in Victoria. Weed Res. 12:46-47.

Sechser, B. von. 1970. der parasitenkomplex des kleinen frostspanners (Operophtera brumata L.) (Lep.. Geometridae) unter besonderer Berucksichtingung der Kokonparasiten. I.Z. angew. Ent. 66:1-35.

Shaheen, A.H. 1977. Survey of pests attacking tomato in Egypt with some ecological notes. Agr. Res. Rev. 55:49-57. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1980, 68:314.

Sheppard, A.C. 1959. Caradrina morpheus, a new record for North America of a European moth (Noctuidae). J. Lepidop. Soc. 13:77.

Smith, C.C. 1950. Notes on the European winter moth, (Operophtera brumata), in Nova Scotia. Can. Sci. Serv. Div. Ent. Forest Insect Invest. Bi-mon. Prog. Rept. 6:1.

Smith, K.M. 1931. A textbook of agricultural entomology. Cambridge University Press. London. 285 pp.

Specht, H.B. 1972, Cutworms of tobacco in Nova Scotia. I. Species complex and infestation. Can. Ent. 104:1855-1864.

Spencer, G.J. 1929. Rept. Entomol. Soc. Ont. 60:82-84.

Spencer, H. and W.O. Strong. 1925. The potato tuberworm, Virginia Truck Expt Sta. Bull 53. Cited in R. N. Hofmaster and L.D. Anderson. 1955. Potato tuberworm control in Virginia. J. Econ. Ent. 48:198-201.

Staudinger, P.O. and P.H. Rebel. 1901. Ypsolophus marginellus. P. 159 in P.O. Staudinger and P.H. Rebel. Cat. Lepidoptera Palearctic fauna. R. Friedlander and John, Berlin.

Sutherland, D.W.S. (Chairman). 1978. Common names of insects and related organisms (1978 Revision). Entomol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Publ. No. 78-1.

Swenson, K.G. 1958. Holly bud moth control. J. Econ. Ent. 51:87-90.

Talhouk, A.S. 1977. Contributions to the knowledge of almond pest in east Mediterranean countries. V. The fruit-feeding insects Eurytoma amygdali End., and Anarsia lineatella 7. Zeit. Ange. Ent. 83:145-154.

Thiem, H. 1943. Sacktragermotten un ihre Bekampfung im Rahmen der Winter-behandlung der Obstbaume. [Case-bearer moths and their control in the course of winter treatment of fruit trees.] Kranke Pflanze 20:81-88. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1944, 32:143.

Torgersen, T.R. and H.C. Coppel. 1965. The European pine shoot moth in Wisconsin. Wis. Conservation Dept, For. Pest Leaflet No. 7. 3 pp.

Touzeau, W. and C.L. Neilson. 1957. Plans to eradicate oriental fruit moth in the Okanagan Valley, B.C. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Col. 54:23-24.

Touzeau, W.D. and C.L. Neilson. 1958. Eradication procedures for oriental fruit moth in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Col. 55:23.

Treherne, R.C. 1914. A review of applied entomology in B.C. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Col. 4:7-17.

Treherne, R.C. 1915, Popular and economic entomology. Notes of economic interest from British Columbia. Can. Ent. 47:101-104.

Treherne, R.C. 1921. A further review of applied entomology in B.C. Proc. Entomol Soc. Brit. Col. 13 & 15 (Econ. series):135 & 146.

Treherne, R.C. 1923. CIPR. 1:1-76.

Twinn, C.R. (ed.) 1938. CIPR. 16:267.

Twinn, C.R. (ed.) 1939. CIPR. 17:6.

Twinn, C.R. (ed.) 1941a. CIPR. 16:145.

Twinn, C.R. (ed.) 1941b. CIPR. 19:194.

Twinn, C. R. (ed.) 1945. CIPR. 23:113.

Vernon, J.D.R. 1971. Observations of the biology and control of tortricid larvae on strawberries. Pl. Path. 20:73-80.

Vorzheva, L.V. 1958. On the bionomics of some little-known Microlepidoptera and their injuriousness to fruit trees in Cisbaikalia. Rev. Ent. URSS. 37:820-828. Abstract in R.A.E. Ser. A 1961, 49:196.

Weiss, H.B. and R.B. Lott. 1922. The juniper webworm, Dichomeris marginellus Fabr. Ent. News. 33:80-82.

Wheeler, A.G., Jr. 1978. Studies on the arthropod fauna of alfalfa. VII. Parasitoid-host records. Can Ent. 110:1117-1119.

Whitehead, W.E. 1926. Notes on the current leafroller (Cacoecia rosana L.) in Nova Scotia. Arcadian Entomol. Soc. Proc. 10:76-79.

Wilkinson, A.T.S. 1965. Releases of cinnabar moth, Hypocrita jacobaeae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), on tansy ragwort in British Columbia. Proc. Entomol. Soc, Brit. Col. 62:10-13.

Wilson. 1912. Report from the Okanagan District: Insect pests of the year in the Okanagan. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Col. 2:6.

Wylie, H.G. 1961. Insect parasites of the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera Geometridae), in western Europe. Entomophaga 5:111-129.


  • There are currently no refbacks.