Tetrastichus galactopus (Hym.: Eulophidae), a hyperparasite of Apantees rubecula and A. glomeratus (Hym.: Braconidae) in North America

Vincent G. Nealis

Abstract


The biology of <i>Tetrastichus galactopus</i>, a hyperparasite of <i>Apanteles rubecula</i> and <i>A. glomeratus</i> in North America, is reviewed. The female hyperparasite attacks its hosts while they are larvae in their primary host, <i>Pieris rapae</i>. although free-living cocoons of <i>A. glomeratus</i> may also be attacked. In Vancouver, where <i>A. rubecula</i> is the only available host, <i>T. galactopus</i> is active from July through September and probably overwinters as a pupa or adult within the host cocoon. The significance of hyperparasitism to the success of biological control efforts using <i>Apanteles</i> is discussed.

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References


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