<i>Tetrastichus galactopus</i> (Hym.: Eulophidae), a hyperparasite of <i>Apantees rubecula </i>and <i>A. glomeratus</i> (Hym.: Braconidae) in North America


  • Vincent G. Nealis Institute of Animal Resource Ecology Department of Plant Science University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C.


The biology of <i>Tetrastichus galactopus</i>, a hyperparasite of <i>Apanteles rubecula</i> and <i>A. glomeratus</i> in North America, is reviewed. The female hyperparasite attacks its hosts while they are larvae in their primary host, <i>Pieris rapae</i>. although free-living cocoons of <i>A. glomeratus</i> may also be attacked. In Vancouver, where <i>A. rubecula</i> is the only available host, <i>T. galactopus</i> is active from July through September and probably overwinters as a pupa or adult within the host cocoon. The significance of hyperparasitism to the success of biological control efforts using <i>Apanteles</i> is discussed.


Blunck, H. 1957. Pieris rapae (L.), its parasites and predators in Canada and the United States. J. Econ. Entomol. 50:835-836.

Bouletreau, M. 1971. Métabolisme respiratoire de Pteromalus puparum (Hym, Chale.) au cours du développement et influence de la densité de population larvaire. Ann. Zool. Ecol. Anim. 3:195-207.

Delucchi, V. 1950. Note morfologiche su Tetrastichus rapo Walker, Chalcidide parassita di [menotteri utili all'agricoltura. Redia 35:441-450.

Ferriére, C. and J.C. Faure. 1925. Contribution a l'étude des Chalcidiens parasites de l'Apanteles glomeratus. L. Ann. Epiphytes 11:221-234.

Gautier, C. and S. Bonnamour. 1924. Recherches sur Tetrastichus rapo, (Hym. Chalcididae). Rev. Path. Veg. & Ent. Agric. 11:246-253.

Krombien, K.B., P.D. Hurd, Jr., D.R. Smith, and B.D. Burks. 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Vol. I. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. D.C. 1198 pp.

Mook, J.H. and J. Haeck. 1965. Dispersal of Pieris brassicae L., (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and of its primary and secondary hymenopterous parasites in a newly reclaimed ploder of the former zuiderzee. Archiv. Neerlandaises de Zoologie 16:293-312.

Parker, F.D., F.R. Lawson, and R.E. Pinnell. 1971. Suppression of Pieris rapae using a new control system: mass releases of both the pest and its parasites. J. Econ. Entomol. 64:721-735.

Picard, F. 1921. Sur la biologie du Tetrastichus rapo Walk. (Hym. Chalcididae). Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 9:206-208.

Richards, O.W. 1940. The biology of the small white butterfly (Pieris rapae), with special reference to factors controlling its abundance. J. Anim. Ecol. 9:243-288.

Wilkinson, A.T.S. 1966. Apanteles rubecula Marsh and other parasites of Pieris rapae in British Columbia. J. Econ. Entomol. 59:1012-1013.