Defoliation and mortality caused by western spruce budworm: variability in a Douglas-fir stand
Keywords:western spruce budworm, <i>Choristoneura occidentalis</i>, Douglas-fir, <i>Pseudotsuga menziesii</i>
AbstractVariation in Douglas-fir (<i>Pseudotsuga menziesii</i> [Mirb.] Franco) defoliation and mortality caused by the western spruce budworm (<i>Choristoneura occidentalis</i> [Freeman]) was measured in sequential annual surveys of a stand near Pemberton, British Columbia. The implications of this variability in designing defoliation and mortality surveys is discussed.
Alfaro, R.I., G.A. Van Sickle, A.J. Thomson. and E. Wegwitz. 1982. Tree mortality and radial growth losses caused by the western spruce budworm in a Douglas-fir stand in British Columbia. Can. J. For. Res.12:780-787.
Alfaro, R.I., A.J. Thomson, and G.A. Van Sickle. (In Press.) Quantification of Douglas-fir growth losses caused by western spruce budworm defoliation using stem analysis. Can. J. For. Res.
Ferrell, G.T. and R.F. Scharpf. 1982. Stem volume losses in Grand firs top killed by western spruce budworm in Idaho. USDA For. Serv. Pacific Southwest For. and Range Exp. Sta. Res. Pap. PSW-164.
Harris, J.W.E., R.I. Alfaro, A.G. Dawson, and R.G. Brown. (In Press.) The western spruce budworm in British Columbia 1909-1983. Agric. Can. Can. For. Serv. Inf. Rep.
Husch, B., C.I. Miller, and T.W. Beers. 1972. Forest mensuration. Ronald Press Co. New York. 410 pp.
MacLean, D.A. and D.P. Ostaff. 1983. Sample size — Precision relationships for use in estimating stand characteristics and spruce budworm caused tree mortality. Can. J. For. Res. 13:548-555.
Scheaffer, R.L., W. Mendenhall, and L. Ott. 1979. Elementary Survey Sampling. Duxbury Press, Massachusetts. 278 pp.
Silver, G.T. 1959. Individual differences in estimating defoliation. Can. Dep. Agr. Res. Br. For. Bi. Div. Bi-mon. Prog. Rept. 15(3):1-4.
Southwood, T.R.E. 1978. Ecological methods. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 524 pp.
Van Sickle, G.A., R.I. Alfaro, and A.J. Thomson. 1983. Douglas-fir height growth affected by western spruce budworm defoliation. Can. J. For. Res. 13:45-450.
LicenseAuthors who publish with the Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).