The spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in British Columbia

T. L. Shore, R. I. Alfaro

Abstract


The spruce budworm, <i>Choristoneura fumiferana</i> (Clements), causes severe defoliation, primarily of white spruce, <i>Picea glauca</i> (Moench) Voss, eastern larch, <i>Larix laricina</i> (Du roi), K. Koch, and alpine fir, <i>Abies lasiocarpa</i> (Hook.) Nutt, in the Liard River area of northern British Columbia. Less preferred hosts are black spruce, <i>Picea mariana</i> (Mill.) B.S.P., and lodgepole pine, <i>Pinus contorta</i> Doug]. Infestations last for many years with variable defoliation intensity. Defoliation causes extensive top-killing of trees but little mortality. In addition, mature spruce trees (104 to 144 years old) defoliated from 1959 to 1976 lost an estimated 3 to 4.4% of diameter growth. Tree ring analysis suggested that <i>C. fumiferana</i> defoliated trees in the Liard River area at least five times since 1869. Infestations recurred every 14 to 28 years.

Keywords


spruce budworm; <i>Choristoneura fumiferana</i>; Lepidoptera; Tortricidae; white spruce; <i>Picea glauca</i>; eastern larch; <i>Larix laricina</i>; alpine fir; <i>Abies lasiocarpa</i>; <i>Picea mariana</i>; <i>Pinus contort

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alfaro, R.I., G.A. Van Sickle, A.J. Thomson, and E. Wegwitz. 1982. Tree mortality and radial growth losses caused by the western spruce budworm in a Douglas-fir stand in British Columbia. Can. J. For. Res. 12:780-787.

Annas, R.M. 1983. Boreal White and Black Spruce Zone. Pp. 254-258. In: S.B. Watts (ed.). Forestry Handbook for British Columbia. The Forestry Undergraduate Society, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia. 611 pp.

Anonymous. 1957-1985. Monthly Record, Meteorological observations in Canada. Environment Canada. Atmospheric Environment Service.

Blais, J.R. 1983. Trends in the frequency, extent and severity of spruce budworm outbreaks in eastern Canada. Can. J. For. Res. 13:539-547.

Dang, P.T. 1985. Key to Adult Males of Conifer-Feeding Species of Choristoneura Lederer (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Canada and Alaska. Can. Ent. 117:1-5.

Freeman, T.N. 1967. On coniferophagous species of Choristoneura (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North America I: Some new forms of Choristoneura allied to C. fumiferana. Can. Ent. 99:449-455.

Furniss, R.L. and V.M. Carolin. 1977. Western Forest Insects. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Misc. Pub. 1339. 654 pp.

Greenbank, D.O. 1956. The role of climate and dispersal in the initiation of outbreaks of the spruce budworm in New Brunswick. Can. J. Zool. 34:453-476.

Harris, J.W.E. 1976. Storage and retrieval of quantitative British Columbia-Yukon Forest Insect and Disease Survey records. Can. For. Serv., Pac. For. Res. Cent. Inf. Rep., BC-X-120, 30 pp.

Kleinschmidt, S.M., G.L. Baskerville, and D.S. Solomon. 1980. Reduction of volume increment in Fir-spruce stands due to defoliation by spruce budworm. Fac. of Forestry, U. of N. Brunswick. 37 pp.

Krajina, V.J. 1965. Biogeoclimatic zones and classification of British Columbia. Pp. 1-17. In: V.J. Kragina (ed.). Ecology of Western North America 1. Univ. of British Columbia Dept. of Botany.

MacLean, D.A., A.W. Kline, and D.R. Lavigne. 1984. Effectiveness of spruce budworm spraying in New Brunswick in protecting the spruce component of spruce-fir stands. Can. J. For. Res. 14:163-176

Morris, R.F. (ed.). 1963. The dynamics of epidemic spruce budworm populations. Memoirs Ent. Soc. Can. No. 31. 332 pp.

Schmitt, D.M., D.G. Grimble, and J.L. Searcy. 1984. Managing the Spruce Budworm in Eastern North America. U.S.D.A. Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook No. 620.

Stokes, M.A. and T.L. Smiley. 1968. An introduction to tree-ring dating. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 73 pp.

Thomson, A.J., R.F. Shepherd, J.W.E. Harris, and R.H. Silversides. 1984. Relating weather to outbreaks of western spruce budworm Choristoneura occidentalis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in British Columbia. Can. Ent. 116:375-381.

Wellington, W.R., J.J. Fettes, K.B. Turner, and R.M. Belyea. 1950. Physical and biological indicators of the development of outbreaks of the spruce budworm. Can. J. Research 28:308-331.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.