Effects of fenvalerate insecticide on pollinators
Susceptibility to fenvalerate sprays was greatest for the alfalfa leafcutting bee, <i>Megachile rotundata</i> (Fabr.); least for the honey bee, <i>Apis mellifera</i> L., and intermediate for the alkali bee, <i>Nomia melanderi</i> Cock. Low temperatures increased the residual toxic effects of fenvalerate to honey bees. Fenvalerate at 0.22 kg Al/ha had low residual hazard to bees after one day under Pacific Northwest conditions. Field tests of fenvalerate on blooming alfalfa, pollen-shedding corn, and blooming red raspberry resulted in reduced bee visitation and low to moderate adult bee mortality.
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