Assessments of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation of temperate, tropical, and subtropical fruit in the field and laboratory in Washington State, U.S.
To understand the likelihood of any risk of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to domestic and foreign fruit export markets, knowledge of its host plant use is needed. Here, assessments of R. pomonella infestation of temperate, tropical, and subtropical fruit were made in the field and laboratory in Washington State, U.S. In field surveys in 2010– 2017 in central Washington, 6.7% of Crataegus douglasii and 6.1% of feral Malus domestica trees (both temperate plants) in fly-managed (insecticide- treated) sites were infested by larvae. In unmanaged sites, 54.1% of C. douglasii and 16.3% of feral M. domestica tree samples were infested. In field surveys of 36 types of temperate fruit in 2015–2018 in southwestern Washington, new host records for R. pomonella were one species and three hybrids of Crataegus, as well as Prunus domestica subsp. syriaca – all of which produced adult flies. In addition, Prunus avium was a new host record for Washington State, producing one adult fly. Prunus armeniaca x Prunus salicina and Vitis vinifera exposed to flies in the laboratory produced adult flies. Of 37 types of tropical and subtropical fruit hung in fly-infested M. domestica trees in southwestern Washington, only Mangifera indica produced puparia. Out of nine tropical and subtropical fruit types in laboratory tests, Musa acuminata x balbisiana produced puparia but no adult flies. Results provide a basis for further research and hypotheses concerning host use by R. pomonella and its potential impact on protecting both U.S. and tropical and subtropical fruit markets.
AliNiazee, M.T. 1988. Diapause modalities in some Rhagoletis species. In Ecology and Management of Economically Important Fruit Flies. Edited by M. T. AliNiazee, Agricultural Experiment Station Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. Pp 13–25.
AliNiazee, M.T. and Brunner, J.F. 1986. Apple maggot in the western United States: a review of its establishment and current approaches to management. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 83: 49–53.
AliNiazee, M.T. and Penrose, R.L. 1981. Apple maggot in Oregon: a possible threat to the Northwest apple industry. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 27: 245–246.
Allred, D.B. and Jorgensen, C.D. 1993. Hosts, adult emergence, and distribution of the apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Utah. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 69: 236–246.
Anonymous. 2019. Dapple Dandy pluot® tree (semi-dwarf). GrowOrganic.com [accessed 11 May 2019].
Anonymous. 2018. Washington apple crop forecast slightly lower amid tougher export scenario. https://www.freshfruitportal.com/news/2018/08/08/washington- apple-crop-forecast-slightly-lower-amid-tougher-export-scenario/ [accessed 3 December 2018].
Bush, G.L. 1966. The taxonomy, cytology, and evolution of the genus Rhagoletis in North America (Diptera, Tephritidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 134: 431–562.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2017. D-00-07 Phytosanitary requirements to prevent the introduction and spread of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh). https://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/plant-pests-invasive-species/ directives/date/d-00-07/eng/1323819375916/1323819868990 [accessed 29 August 2019].
Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2016. Apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella). Pest alert. British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture. https://www2.gov.bc.ca/ assets/gov/farming-natural-resources-and-industry/agriculture-and-seafood/ animal-and-crops/plant-health/phu-apple-maggot-pestalert.pdf [accessed 31 May 2019].
Cugala, D., Ekesi, S., Ambasse, D., Adamu, R.S., and Mohamed, S.A. 2013. Assessment of ripening stages of Cavendish dwarf bananas as host or non-host to
Bactrocera invadens. Journal of Applied Entomology, 138: 449-457.
FAO. 2016. International standards for phytosanitary measures 37 (ISPM 37). Determination of host status of fruit to fruit flies (Tephritidae). Secretariat of the
International Plant Protection Convention, Rome, Italy.
Klaus, M.W. 2017. 2017 apple maggot survey summary report. Washington State Department of Agriculture, Plant Protection Division, Yakima, WA. 22 pp.
Klaus, M.W. 2014. 2014 apple maggot survey summary report. Washington State Department of Agriculture, Plant Protection Division, Yakima, WA. 20 pp.
Kumar, S., Yee, W.L., and Neven, L.G. 2016. Mapping global potential risk of establishment of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) using MaxEnt and CLIMEX niche models. Journal of Economic Entomology, 109: 2043–2053.
Lienk, S.E. 1970. Apple maggot infesting apricot. Journal of Economic Entomology, 63: 1684.
Lyons, C.P. and Merilees, B. 1995. Trees, shrubs and flowers to know in Washington and British Columbia. Lone Pine Publishing, Redmond, Washington.
NASS. 2017. 2017 State agriculture overview. https://www.nass.usda.gov/ Quick_Stats/Ag_Overview/stateOverview.php?state=WASHINGTON [accessed 3 December 2018].
Roditakis, E., Tsagkarakou, A., and Roditakis, N.E. 2008. Extensive damage on white variety table grapes by the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in Greece. OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 38: 216–219.
Shervis, L.J., Boush, M.G., and Koval, C.F. 1970. Infestation of sour cherries by the apple maggot: confirmation of a previously uncertain host status. Journal of Economic Entomology, 63: 294–295.
Tracewski, K.T., Brunner, J.F., Hoyt, S.C., and Dewey, S.R. 1987. Occurrence of Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) in hawthorns, Crataegus, of the Pacific Northwest. Melanderia, 45: 19–25.
Wakie, T.T., Yee, W.L., Neven, L.G., and Kumar, S. 2019. Modeling the abundance of two Rhagoletis fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) pests in Washington State, U.S.A. PLOS ONE. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217071.
Washington State Department of Agriculture. 2018. Apple maggot. https://agr.wa.gov/plantsinsects/insectpests/applemaggot/default.aspx [accessed 9 December 2018].
Yee, W.L. 2008. Host plant use by apple maggot, western cherry fruit fly, and other Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in central Washington state. The Pan- Pacific Entomologist, 84: 163–178.
Yee, W.L. and Goughnour, R.B. 2017. Development in mango (Mangifera indica) and other tropical and temperate fruit by Rhagoletis pomonella and R. indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the laboratory. The Florida Entomologist, 100: 157–161.
Yee, W.L. and Goughnour, R.B. 2016. Peach is an occasional host for Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh, 1867) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in western Washington state, U.S.A. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 92: 189–199.
Yee, W.L. and Goughnour, R.B. 2008. Host plant use by and new host records of apple maggot, western cherry fruit fly, and other Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in western Washington state. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 84: 179–193.
Yee, W.L. and Norrbom, A.L. 2017. Provisional list of suitable host plants of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae). In USDA Compendium of Fruit Fly Host Information (CoFFHI). Edition 2.0. https:// coffhi.cphst.org [accessed November 2019].
Yee, W.L., Klaus, M.W., Cha, D.H., Linn, Jr., C.E., Goughnour, R.B., and Feder, J.L. 2012. Abundance of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, across different areas in central Washington, with special reference to black-fruited hawthorns. Journal of Insect Science, 12: 1-14.
Zar, J.H. 1999. Biostatistical analysis, Fourth edition. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
LicenseAuthors who publish with the Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).