Efficacy of Isomate-CM/LR for management of leafrollers by mating disruption in organic apple orchards of western Canada

Gary J. R. Judd, Mark G. T. Gardiner

Abstract


Results of a three-year study demonstrated that Isomate-CM/LR, a polyethylene, single tube-type pheromone dispenser releasing an incomplete mixture of several species' multi-component pheromones is an effective management tool that provides multiplespecies mating disruption for Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis limitata (Robinson). When applied at a rate of 500 dispensers / ha within the orchard and the equivalent of 2000 dispensers / ha to trees on the orchard perimeter, levels of control were adequate for production of organic apples in British Columbia, Canada. Trap catches with synthetic pheromone lures were reduced by 79-99% and mating of females on mating tables was reduced by 87-98% in these species. At harvest, damage from leafrollers in pheromone-treated organic orchards was below organically-acceptable economic levels (5%) and similar to damage levels observed in insecticide-treated conventional orchards (2%). Over three years, total trap catches of these two leafrollers and their damage decreased in four of five orchards treated with pheromone, but catches and damage from leafrollers increased in one orchard. These indices remained relatively unchanged in paired insecticide-treated conventional orchards over the same three-year period. In pheromone-treated orchards, levels of damage from leafrollers at harvest were positively correlated with total leafroller catches in pheromone monitoring traps. Use of Isomate-CM/LR as a supplemental pest management tactic in organic orchards will help to reduce damage and economic losses from leafrollers that have been increasing under the area-wide codling moth sterile insect programme ongoing in this semi-desert, montane apple production region.

Keywords


leafrollers; multiple-species mating disruption; organic apples

Full Text:

PDF

References


Agnello, A.M., W.H. Reissig, S.M. Spangler, R.E. Charlton and D.P. Kain. 1996. Trap response and fruit damage by obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in pheromone-treated apple orchards in New York. Environmental Entomology 25: 268-282.

Arn H., M. Toth, and E. Priesner. 1982. List of sex pheromones of Lepidoptera and related attractants, 2nd Edition. Interr1ational Organization for Biological Control, Montfavet.

Brunner, J L.J. Gut, and A.L. Knight. 1994. Transition of apple and pear orchards to a pheromone-based pest management system. Proceedings of the Washington State Horticultural Association 88: 169-175.

Calkins, C.O. 1998. Review of the codling moth area-wide suppression program in the western United States. Journal of Agricultural Entomology 15: 327-333.

Charmillot, P.-J. 1990. Mating disruption technique to control codling moth in western Switzerland, pp. 165-182. In Ridgway, R.L., Silverstein, R.M., Inscoe, M.N. (Eds.), Behavior-Modifying Chemicals for insect Management: applications of pheromones and other attractants. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York and Basel.

Cossentine, J ., L. Jensen, and K. Deglow. 2003. Strategy for orchard use of Bacillus thuringiensis while minimizing impact on Choristoneura rosaceana parasitoids. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 109: 205-210.

Cossentine, J ., L. Jensen, K. Deglow, A. Bennett, H. Goulet, J . Huber, and J . O’Hara. 2004. The parasitoid complex affecting Choristoneura rosaceana and Pandemis limitata in organically managed apple orchards. BioControl 49: 359-372.

Deland, J .-P. 1992. Mating disruption of fruittree leafroller, Archips argyrospilus, and effects on other leafroller species. Master of Pest Management Thesis. Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Deland, J .-P., G.J.R. Judd, and B.D. Roitberg. 1994. Disruption of pheromone communication in three sympatric leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) pests of apple in British Columbia. Environmental Entomology 23: 1084-1090.

Dyck, V.A. and M.G.T. Gardiner. 1992. Sterile-insect release programme to control the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) in British Columbia, Canada. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 27: 219-222.

Gut, L.J. and J .F. Brunner. 1998. Pheromone-based management of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington apple orchards. Journal of Agricultural Entomology 15: 387-405.

Judd, G.J.R. and M.G.T. Gardiner. 2004. Simultaneous disruption of pheromone communication and mating in Cydia pomonella, Choristoneura rosaceana and Pandemis limitata (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using Isomate-CM/LR in apple orchards. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 101: 3-13.

Judd, G.J.R. and M.G.T. Gardiner. 2005. Towards eradication of codling moth in British Columbia by complimentary action of mating disruption, tree-banding and sterile insect technique: five-year study in organic orchards. Crop Protection 24: 718-733.

Judd, G.J.R. and H.L. McBrien. 1995. Pheromone-based management of pome fruit pests in British Columbia: a multiple-species approach, pp. 9-17. In Research, development and commercialization of semiochemicals in insect pest management in Canada. Proceedings of The Entomological Societies of Manitoba and Canada, Workshop, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 1994.

Judd, G.J.R., M.G.T. Gardiner, and D.R. Thomson. 1997. Control of codling moth in organically-managed apple orchards by combining pheromone-mediated mating disruption, post-harvest fruit removal and tree banding. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 83: 137-146.

Knight, A.L. 1995. The impact of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) mating disruption on apple pest management in Yakima Valley, Washington. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 92: 29-38.

Knight, A.L. and J .E. Turr1er. 1999. Mating disruption of Pandemis spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Enviromnental Entomology 28: 81-87.

Knight, A., S. Cockfield, D. Thomson, and D. Neff. 1997 . Developing mating disruption for leafrollers. In Proceedings of the 715‘ Annual Western Orchard Pest and Disease Management Conference, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A. January 8-10, 1997. Western Orchard Pest and Disease Management Conference 71: 1 12-1 14.

Knight, A.L., D.R. Thomson, and S.D. Cockfield. 1998. Developing mating disruption of obliquebanded leafro11er(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State. Environmental Entomology 27: 1080-1088.

Knight, A.L., B.A. Christianson Jr., S. Cockfield, and J . Dunley. 2001. Areawide management of codling moth and leafrollers. Good Fruit Grower 52(11): 31-33.

Lawson, D.S., W.H. Reissig, A.M. Agnello, J.P. Nyrop, and W.L. Roelofs. 1996. Interference with the mate-finding communication system of the obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using synthetic sex pheromones. Environmental Entomology 25: 895-905.

Madsen, H.F. and B.J. Madsen, 1980. Response of four leafroller species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to sex attractants in British Columbia orchards. The Canadian Entomologist 112: 427-430.

Madsen, H.F. and C.V.G. Morgan. 1970. Pome fruit pests and their control. Annual Review of Entomology 15: 295-320.

Madsen, H.F. and P.J. Procter. 1985. Insects and mites of tree fruits in British Columbia. British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Publication 82-6. Victoria, BC.

McBrien, H.L. and G.J.R. Judd. 1996. Teflon®-walled mating table for assessing the efficacy of pheromonebased mating disruption. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 93: 121-125.

McBrien, H.L., G.J.R. Judd, and J .H. Borden. 1998. Development of pheromone-mediated mating disruption for control of the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 88:101-107.

Mullinix, K. 2005. Pacific Northwest / Colorado / British Columbia - Regional Report, pp. 24-30. In Proceedings of the third national organic tree fruit research symposium, June 6-8, 2005, Chelan, WA, USA. Reissig, W.H., M. Novak, and W.L. Roelofs, 197 8. Orientation disruption of Argyrotaenia velutinana and Choristoneura rosaceana male moths. Enyiromnental Entomology 7: 631-632.

Roelofs, W., A. Carde, A. Hill, and R. Carde. 1976. Sex pheromone of the threelined leafroller, Pandemis limitata. Enviromnental Entomology 5: 649-652.

Shorey, H.H. and R.L. Hale. 1965. Mass-rearing of the larvae of nine noctuid species on a simple artificial medium. Journal of Economic Entomology 58: 522-524.

Trimble, R.M. and M.E. Appleby. 2004. Comparison of efficacy of programs using insecticide and insecticide plus mating disruption for controlling the obliquebanded leafroller in apple (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 97: 518-524.

Vakenti, J.M., A.P. Guance, K.N. Slessor, G.G.S. King, A.A. Allan, H.F. Madsen, and J.H. Borden. 1988. Sex pheromone components of the oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. Journal of Chemical Ecology 14: 605-621.

Van Deventer, P., A.K. Minks, L.H.M. Blommers, U. Neuman, and K. Jilderda. 1992. Mating disruption utilizing lepidopterous sex pheromones: three years of testing in apple orchards in The Netherlands. Brighton Crop Protection Conference — Pests and Diseases 3: 1193-1198.

Walker, K.R. and S.C. Welter. 2001. Potential for outbreaks of leafrollers (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in California apple orchards using mating disruption for codling moth suppression. Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 373-380.

Wearing, C.H., J .T.S. Walker, W.P. Thomas, J .R. Clearwater, D.M. Suckling, J .G. Charles, P.W. Shaw, V. White, and G. Burnip, G. 1995. Pest control for organic apple production in New Zealand. The Orchardist July: 22-27.

Zar, J .H. 1984. Biostatistical Analysis, Second edition. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, USA.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.