Effect of pesticides on integrated mite management in Washington State

Luis Martinez-Rocha, Elizabeth H. Beers, John E. Dunley

Abstract


The effect of pesticides used against codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., on integrated mite management was studied for three years in five or six commercial apple orchards in central Washington. Phytophagous and predatory mites were counted throughout the season in blocks ranging from 0.4-1.6 ha in size treated with four codling moth insecticides. In one year of the study (2006), five out of six orchards experienced elevated mite densities relative to the standard. In four orchards, novaluron caused a 3.0-16.9× increase in mite populations; acetamiprid caused a 2.6-3.4× increase, and thiacloprid caused a 1.7-13.8× increase. In the fifth orchard, the organophosphate standard had an extremely high mite population, in addition to all three experimental treatments. In 2005 and 2007, only one or two orchards had elevated mite levels in the novaluron, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid treatments. Additive effects of codling moth and thinning programs were evaluated in small plot research trials. Treatments with all three elements [1) codling moth insecticide; 2) calcium polysulfide; 3) carbaryl] produced the highest levels ofspider mites. Three sulfur-containing products (calcium polysulfide, ammonium thiosulfate, and dry flowable sulfur) were evaluated for their effect onGalandromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) and apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa). All three materials caused suppressed G. occidentalis numbers. Calcium polysulfide caused the greatest reduction in apple rust mite numbers, ammonium thiosulfate the least reduction, with dry flowable sulfur intermediate between the two. Additive effects of codling moth materials, carbaryl, and sulfur-containing products may be causing increased mite levels in Washington orchards.

Keywords


spider mite; integrated mite control; apple; acetamiprid; thiacloprid; novaluron; carbaryl; calcium polysulfide; lime-sulfur; dry flowable sulfur; ammonium thiosulfate

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ako, M., C. Borgemeister, H.-M. Poehling, A. Elbert and R. Nauen. 2004. Effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on the bionomics of twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 97: 1587-1594.

Ako, M., H.-M. Poehling, C. Borgemeister and R. Nauen. 2006. Effect of imidacloprid on the reproduction of acaricide-resistant and susceptible strains of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Pest Management Science 62: 419-424.

Babcock, J.M. and L.K. Tanigoshi. 1988. Resistance levels of Typhlodromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Washington apple orchards to ten pesticides. Experimental and Applied Acarology 4: 151-157.

Baker, H. 1952. Spider mites, insects, and DDT. Yearbook of Agriculture, 1952: 562-566.

Beers, E.H., J.F. Brunner, J.E. Dunley, M. Doerr and K. Granger. 2005. Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part II. Nontarget effects on integrated mite control.

Journal of Insect Science 5: 16.

Clancy, D.W. and H.J. McAlister. 1956. Selective pesticides as aids to biological control of apple pests. Journal of Economic Entomology 49: 196-202.

Croft, B.A. 1983. Introduction, pp. 1-18. In B. A. Croft and S. C. Hoyt (eds.), Integrated management of insect pests of pome and stone fruits. Wiley Interscience, New York.

FRAC. 2008. Fungicide Resistance Action Committee. FRAC code list. http://www.frac.info/frac/publication/anhang/FRAC_Code_List_2007_web.pdf.

Glass, E.H. and S.E. Lienk. 1971. Apple insect and mite populations developing after discontinuance of insecticides: 10-year record. Journal of Economic Entomology 64: 23-26.

Hoy, M.A. and K.A. Standow. 1982. Inheritance of resistance to sulfur in the spider mite predator Metaseiulus occidentalis. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 31: 316-323.

Hoyt, S.C. 1969. Integrated chemical control of insects and biological control of mites on apple in Washington. Journal of Economic Entomology 62: 74-86.

Hoyt, S.C. and L.E. Caltagirone. 1971. The developing programs of integrated control of pests of apples in Washington and peaches in California, pp. 395-421. In C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological control. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, NY.

James, D.G. 1997. Imidacloprid increases egg production in Amblyseius victoriensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology 21: 75-82.

James, D.G. and T.S. Price. 2002. Fecundity in twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) is increased by direct and systemic exposure to imidacloprid. Journal of Economic Entomology 95: 729-732.

Levene, H. 1960. Robust tests for equality of variances. In I. Olkin, S. G. Ghurye, W. Hoeffding, W. G. Madow, and H. B. Mann (ed.), Contributions to probability and statistics. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

McMurtry, J.A., C.B. Huffaker and M. Van de Vrie. 1970. Ecology of the tetranychid mites and their natural enemies: A review. I. Tetranychid enemies: their biological characters and the impact of spray practices. Hilgardia 40: 331-458.

NASS. 1992. Agricultural chemical usage, 1991 fruit crops, NASS. National Agricultural Statistics Service, Washington, DC.

NASS. 2006. Agricultural chemical usage, 2005 fruit summary, National Agricultural Statistics Service. NASS, Washington, DC.

Newcomer, E.J. and F.P. Dean. 1946. Effect of Xanthone, DDT, and other insecticides on the Pacific mite. Journal of Economic Entomology 39: 783-786.

Poletti, M., A.H.N. Maia and C. Omoto. 2007. Toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides to Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their impact on functional response to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Biological Control 40: 30-36. SAS. 1988. Statistical Analysis Institute. User's guide, Cary, NC.

Smith, T.J., J.E. Dunley, E.H. Beers, J.F. Brunner, G.G. Grove, C.-l. Xiao, D. Elfving, F.J. Peryea, R. Parker, M. Bush, C. Daniels, T. Maxwell, S. Foss and S. Martin. 2006. 2006 Crop protection guide for tree fruits in Washington. EB0419, Washington State University Cooperative Extension, Pullman, WA.

Whalon, M.E. and B.A. Croft. 1984. Apple IPM implementation in North America. Annual Review of Entomology 29: 435-470.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.