Flight Tunnel and Field Evaluations of Sticky Traps for Monitoring Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Sex Pheromone-treated Orchards

A. L. Knight, D. Larson, B. Christianson

Abstract


Delta, diamond, and wing style sticky traps baited with codlemone were evaluated in both flight tunnel and in field trials to detennine their perfonnance in capturing male codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.). Flight tunnel studies found no differences among trap types in tenns of moth orientation behaviors. However, the proportion of moths contacting each trap type that were caught varied significantly. The ICP wing trap caught a lower proportion of moths than the IIB diamond trap due to a significantly lower efficiency in retaining moths that landed on the trap. The position of a moth's first contact varied among traps with a significantly higher proportion landing on the outside of the wing style versus the delta and diamond traps. A significantly lower proportion of moths first landing on the outside of the delta trap were caught than for moths landing on the outside of the ICP wing trap. A significantly lower proportion of moths landing on the front opening of the ICP wing trap were captured than for the other traps. No differences were found among trap types for either the proportion of moths flying into traps or the proportion of these moths captured. A majority of moths orienting to the diamond and delta traps first landed on the front flap and walked into the trap. The removal of the front flap from these traps did not affect their efficiency. However, a significantly greater proportion of moths flew directly into the delta trap when the flap was removed. Lure position within a delta trap did not affect moth catch, but it did affect the position of a moth's first contact with the trap. Lures placed high in the trap elicited moth landing on thc inside surface of the trap's side or on the outside of the trap. Moths tended to land on the front flap when lures were placed in the adhesive. The relative field perfonnance of traps in a sex pheromone-treated apple orchard was consistent with the flight tunnel studies, however, it was also influenced by moth population density. The ICP trap caught significantly fewer moths than the other traps in an orchard with low codling moth density. The mean cumulative moth catch of each trap type was proportional to its adhesive-treated surface area within orchards receiving releases of sterile moths.

Keywords: codling moth; traps; monitoring; mating disruption; sex pheromones


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