α-Pinene and ethanol: Key host volatiles for Xylotrechus longitarsis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

W. D. Morewood, K. E. Simmonds, I. M. Wilson, J. H. Borden, R. L. McIntosh

Abstract


Xylotrechus longitarsis Casey is a common wood-boring beetle that causes considerable losses to the softwood lumber industry in British Columbia. Trapping experiments were conducted in the southem interior of British Columbia to determine whether the generic bait of α-pinene plus ethanol is an optimal combination for attraction of X. longitarsis. α-pinene alone attracted substantial numbers of X. longitarsis and trap catches were increased significantly with the addition of ethanol lures but different release rates of ethanol had no significant effect. The blend of pure α-pinene and ethanol was significantly more attractive than more complete blends of conifer monoterpenes and ethanol, whether or not α-pinene was a major component of the blend. Strong attraction to α-pinene reflects the preference of X. longitarsis for conifers, and particularly Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco, the bark of which is relatively rich in α-pinene. Increased attraction with the addition of ethanol lures, irrespective of release rates, to traps baited with α-pinene suggests that X. longitarsis prefers severely stressed hosts or deteriorating host material but may also utilize freshly cut or broken material.

Keywords: Xylotrechus longitarsis; Cerambycidae; chemical ecology; host volatiles; woodborers; pest management; trapping

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