Establishment of Phyllonorycter mespilella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera:Gracillariidae) and its parasitoid, Pnigalio flavipes (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae), in fruit orchards in the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys of British Columbia

J. E. Cossentine, L. B. Jensen

Abstract


In 1988, a leafminer, Phyllonorycter mespilella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera:Gracillariidae) was found for the first time in commercial fruit orchards in the Okanagan and Similkameen valleys of British Columbia after apparently moving across the international border from Washington State. Leafminer infestations and parasitoid-induced-leafminer-mortalities were assessed in widespread surveys in the two orcharding areas from 1988 to 1990. Pnigalio flavipes (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) was the primary parasitoid of the leafminer pest. Three additional parasitoid species associated with the leafminer host in 1990 were: a Sympiesis species, an Eulophus species and a Cirrospilus species (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae). Parasitism reduced intraseasonal leafminer population increase as parasitoid-induced-mortality in the first leafminer generation of 1989 and 1990 was negatively correlated with leafminer density in both the second and third generations of the same year.

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