Managing Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with an Internal Grid of Either Aerosol Puffers or Dispenser Clusters Plus Border Applications of Individual Dispensers

A. L. Knight

Abstract


Field trials run from 2001 to 2003 evaluated the effectiveness of a combination of handapplied sex pheromone dispensers (Isomate-C) applied on the perimeter of apple orchards with an internal grid of either pressurized aerosol emitters (puffers) or clusters of dispensers for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Puffers were placed in a grid at 1 per ha, while the dispenser clusters were applied at 4 - 8 per ha. Puffers were programmed to release either 240 or 360 mg (E, E)-8-10-dodecadienol (codlemone) per day in 48 puffs (every 15 min from 1500 – 0300 h). Dispensers were grouped in clusters of 50 (Isomate-C TT) or 100 (Isomate-C PLUS) releasing 56 and 33 mg codlemone per d, respectively. No significant differences were found in levels of fruit injury in puffertreated orchards paired with similar orchards treated with 500 Isomate-C PLUS individually applied dispensers per ha. Similarly no significant differences in fruit injury were found in orchards treated with individually applied dispensers versus orchards treated with Isomate-C PLUS dispensers (100 per cluster) placed in screened cages or Isomate-C TT dispensers (50 per cluster) hung from plastic disks. Levels of fruit injury, however, were significantly higher in orchards treated with Isomate-C PLUS dispensers (100 per cluster) hung from plastic disks versus in orchards treated with individually applied dispensers. This later poor performance of the Isomate-C PLUS clusters was associated with its more restricted spacing of dispensers within the cluster and a significant reduction in the weight loss of dispensers compared with dispensers applied individually. These studies suggest that the use of puffers can effectively lower the cost of codling moth management through reductions in sex pheromone puff volume and emitter density.

Keywords


mating disruption; sex pheremones; puffers; apple

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References


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