A positive correlation between photoperiod and development rate in summer species of Odonata could help to make emergence date appropriate to latitude: a testable hypothesis*

Philip S. Corbett

Abstract


In the western Nearctic and the Palaearctic Regions several species of Odonata occur, without evident gaps in distribution, from latitude 50° N northwards to the Arctic Circle (66°30'N) and beyond. The decline in incident solar radiation along this latitude gradient does not appear to be reflected, as might be expected, in progressively later emergence, despite the progress of metamorphosis being dependent on ambient temperature. On the contrary, reports indicate that, in some species, northernmost populations may emerge at least as early as, and sometimes even earlier than, more southerly populations, suggesting that some mechanism exists that enables larval developmental rate to compensate for latitude. Reported responses by late-stadium larvae to photoperiod, placed in the context of seasonal changes of photoperiod at different latitudes, make it plausible to postulate the existence of a single, fixed response to photoperiod that would continuously adjust developmental rate to latitude, at least between 50° and 70° N. In Odonata such a response, to be effective, would be confined to species possessing a Type-2 or Type-3 life cycle, in which more than one stadium precedes metamorphosis in spring or early summer. The hypothesis proposed here does not invoke genetic heterogeneity of response in populations at different latitudes, such as has been detected in certain other insects. The response predicted by the hypothesis may complement, rather than substitute for, other mechanisms of seasonal regulation. Steps are described by which the hypothesis could be tested in Odonata.

*Text based on an invited, oral contribution to the Workshop "North American Dragonflies", included in the Joint Meeting of the Entomological Society of Canada and the Entomological Society of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 9 October 2002.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Baker, R.L., and H.F. Clifford. 1981. Life cycles and food of Coenagrion resolutum (Coenagrionidae: Odonata) and Lestes disjunctus disjunctus (Lestidae: Odonata) populations from the boreal forest of Alberta, Canada. Aquatic Insects 3: 179-191.

Beck, S. 1968. Insect Photoperiodism. Academic Press, London. Boehms, C. 1971. The influence of temperature upon embryonic diapause and seasonal regulation in Sympetrum vicinum (Hagen) (Odonata: Libellulidae). PhD thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Boughner, C.C. 1964. The distribution of growing-degree days in Canada. Canadian Meteorological Memoirs 17: 1-40.

Cannings, R.A. 2002. Introducing the Dragonflies of British Columbia and the Yukon. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, B.C.

Cannings, S.G. and R.A. Cannings. 1997. Dragonflies (Odonata) of the Yukon, pp. 170-200. In H.V. Danks and J.A. Downes (Eds.), Insects of the Yukon. Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods), Ottawa.

Cannings, S.G., R.A. Cannings, and R.J. Cannings. 1991. Distribution of the dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata) of the Yukon Territory, Canada with notes on ecology and behaviour. Contributions to Natural Science, Royal British Columbia Museum 13: 1-27.

Corbet, P.S. 1956a. The life-histories of Lestes sponsa (Hansemann) and Sympetrum striolatum (Charpentier) (Odonata). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 99: 217-229.

Corbet, P.S. 1956b. Environmental factors influencing the induction and termination of diapause in the Emperor Dragonfly, Anax imperator Leach (Odonata: Aeshnidae). Journal of Experimental Biology 33: 1-14.

Corbet, P.S. 1957a. The life-history of the Emperor Dragonfly, Anax imperator Leach (Odonata: Aeshnidae). Journal of Animal Ecology 26: 1-69.

Corbet, P.S. 1957b. The life-histories of two summer species of dragonfly (Odonata: Coenagriidae). Proceedings of Zoological Society of London 128: 403-418.

Corbet, P.S. 1960. Seasonal regulation, pp. 138-148. In P.S. Corbet, C. Longfield, and N.W. Moore. Dragonflies. Collins, London.

Corbet, P.S. 1962. A Biology of Dragonflies. Witherby, London.

Corbet, P.S. 1969. Terrestrial microclimate: amelioration at high latitudes. Science 166: 865-866.

Corbet, P.S. 1972. The microclimate of Arctic animals and plants, on land and in fresh water. Acta Arctica 18: 1-43.

Corbet, P.S. 1999. Dragonflies. Behavior and Ecology of Odonata. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

Corbet, P.S. and S.A. Corbet, 1958. Emergence of a summer species of dragonfly. Nature, London 182: 194.

Danilevskii, A.S. 1965. Photoperiodism and Seasonal Development of Insects. Oliver and Boyd, London.

Danks, H.V. 1971. Spring and early summer temperatures in a shallow arctic pond. Arctic 24:113-123.

Danks, H.V. 1987. Insect Dormancy: an Ecological Perspective. Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods), Ottawa.

Danks, H.V. 1991. Life cycle pathways and the analysis of complex life cycles in insects. The Canadian Entomologist 123: 23-40.

Deacon, K.J. 1975. The seasonal regulation of Leucorrhinia intacta Hagen (Odonata: Libellulidae). MSc thesis, University of Waterloo, Canada.

Halverson, T.G. 1984. Autecology of two Aeshna species (Odonata) in western Virginia. The Canadian Entomologist 116: 567-578.

Jenner, C.E. 1958. The effect of photoperiod on the duration of nymphal development in several species of Odonata. Quarterly Publication of the Association of Southwestern Biologists, Philadelphia 6: 26.

Johansson, F. 2003. Latitudinal shifts in body size of Enallagma cyathigerum (Odonata). Journal of Biogeography 30: 29-34.

Johansson, F. and U. Norling. 1994. A five year study of the larval life history of Coenagrion hastulatum (Charpentier) and C. armatum (Charpentier) in northern Sweden (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica 23: 355-364.

Johansson, F. and L. Rowe. 1999. Life history and behavioural responses to time constraints in a damselfly. Ecology 80: 1242-1252.

Johansson, F., R. Stoks, L. Rowe, L. and M. De Block. 2001. Life history plasticity in a damselfly: effects of combined time and biotic constraints. Ecology 82: 1857-1869.

Krishnaraj, , R. and G. Pritchard. 1995. The influence of larval size, temperature, and the components of the functional response to prey density on growth rates of the dragonflies Lestes disjunctus and Coenagrion resolutum (Insecta: Odonata). Canadian Journal of Zoology 73: 1672-1680.

Krull, W.H. 1929. The rearing of dragonflies from eggs. Annals of Entomological Society of America 22: 651-658.

Laplante, J.-P. 1975. Observations sur la ponte de quatre odonates du genre Lestes (Zygoptera: Lestidae) au Québec. Le Naturaliste canadien 102: 279-292.

Lincoln, E. 1940. Growth in Aeshna tuberculifera (Odonata). Proceedings of American Philosophical Society 83: 589-605.

Lutz, P.E. 1968. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on larval development in Lestes eurinus (Odonata: Lestidae). Ecology 49: 637-644.

Lutz, P.E. and C.E. Jenner. 1964. Life-history and photoperiodic responses of nymphs of Tetragoneuria cynosura (Say). Biological Bulletin 127: 304-316.

Nielsen, E.T. 1963. Illumination at twilight. Oikos 14: 9-21. Norling, U. 1971. The life history and seasonal regulation of Aeshna viridis Eversm. in southern Sweden (Odonata). Entomologica Scandinavica 2: 170-190.

Norling, U. 1976. Seasonal regulation in Leucorrhinia dubia (Vander Linden) (Anisoptera: Libellulidae). Odonatologica 5: 245-263.

Norling, U. 1984a. Photoperiodic control of larval development in Leucorrhinia dubia (Vander Linden): a comparison between populations from northern and southern Sweden (Anisoptera: Libellulidae). Odonatologica 13: 529-550.

Norling, U. 1984b. Life-history patterns in the northern expansion of dragonflies. Advances in Odonatology 2: 127-156.

Norling, U. 1984c. The life cycle and larval photoperiodic responses of Coenagrion hastulatum (Charpentier) in two climatically different areas (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica 13: 429-449.

Oliver, D.R. and P.S. Corbet. 1966. Aquatic habitats in a high arctic locality: the Hazen Camp Study Area, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T. Defence Research Board of Canada, Directorate of Physical Research (G), Hazen 26, Ottawa, Canada.

Paulson, D.R. and C.E. Jenner. 1971. Population structure in overwintering larval Odonata in North Carolina in relation to adult flight season. Ecology 52: 96-107.

Peterson, J. 1975. The seasonal regulation of two Sympetrum species (Odonata: Libellulidae) in a temporary pond. MSc thesis, University of Waterloo, Canada.

Pilon, J.-G. and M.J. Masseau, 1984. The effect of temperature on egg development in Zygoptera: a preliminary discussion. Advances in Odonatology 2: 177-193.

Pritchard, G. 1982. Life-history strategies in dragonflies and the colonization of North America by the genus Argia (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). Advances in Odonatology 1: 227-241.

Danks, H.V. 1987. Insect Dormancy: an Ecological Perspective. Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods), Ottawa.

Danks, H.V. 1991. Life cycle pathways and the analysis of complex life cycles in insects. The Canadian Entomologist 123: 23-40.

Deacon, K.J. 1975. The seasonal regulation of Leucorrhinia intacta Hagen (Odonata: Libellulidae). MSc thesis, University of Waterloo, Canada.

Halverson, T.G. 1984. Autecology of two Aeshna species (Odonata) in western Virginia. The Canadian Entomologist 116: 567-578.

Jenner, C.E. 1958. The effect of photoperiod on the duration of nymphal development in several species of Odonata. Quarterly Publication of the Association of Southwestern Biologists, Philadelphia 6: 26.

Johansson, F. 2003. Latitudinal shifts in body size of Enallagma cyathigerum (Odonata). Journal of Biogeography 30: 29-34.

Johansson, F. and U. Norling. 1994. A five year study of the larval life history of Coenagrion hastulatum (Charpentier) and C. armatum (Charpentier) in northern Sweden (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica 23: 355-364.

Johansson, F. and L. Rowe. 1999. Life history and behavioural responses to time constraints in a damselfly. Ecology 80: 1242-1252.

Johansson, F., R. Stoks, L. Rowe, L. and M. De Block. 2001. Life history plasticity in a damselfly: effects of combined time and biotic constraints. Ecology 82: 1857-1869.

Krishnaraj, , R. and G. Pritchard. 1995. The influence of larval size, temperature, and the components of the functional response to prey density on growth rates of the dragonflies Lestes disjunctus and Coenagrion resolutum (Insecta: Odonata). Canadian Journal of Zoology 73: 1672-1680.

Krull, W.H. 1929. The rearing of dragonflies from eggs. Annals of Entomological Society of America 22: 651-658.

Laplante, J.-P. 1975. Observations sur la ponte de quatre odonates du genre Lestes (Zygoptera: Lestidae) au Québec. Le Naturaliste canadien 102: 279-292.

Lincoln, E. 1940. Growth in Aeshna tuberculifera (Odonata). Proceedings of American Philosophical Society 83: 589-605.

Lutz, P.E. 1968. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on larval development in Lestes eurinus (Odonata: Lestidae). Ecology 49: 637-644.

Lutz, P.E. and C.E. Jenner. 1964. Life-history and photoperiodic responses of nymphs of Tetragoneuria cynosura (Say). Biological Bulletin 127: 304-316.

Nielsen, E.T. 1963. Illumination at twilight. Oikos 14: 9-21. Norling, U. 1971. The life history and seasonal regulation of Aeshna viridis Eversm. in southern Sweden (Odonata). Entomologica Scandinavica 2: 170-190.

Norling, U. 1976. Seasonal regulation in Leucorrhinia dubia (Vander Linden) (Anisoptera: Libellulidae). Odonatologica 5: 245-263.

Norling, U. 1984a. Photoperiodic control of larval development in Leucorrhinia dubia (Vander Linden): a comparison between populations from northern and southern Sweden (Anisoptera: Libellulidae). Odonatologica 13: 529-550.

Norling, U. 1984b. Life-history patterns in the northern expansion of dragonflies. Advances in Odonatology 2: 127-156.

Norling, U. 1984c. The life cycle and larval photoperiodic responses of Coenagrion hastulatum (Charpentier) in two climatically different areas (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica 13: 429-449.

Oliver, D.R. and P.S. Corbet. 1966. Aquatic habitats in a high arctic locality: the Hazen Camp Study Area, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T. Defence Research Board of Canada, Directorate of Physical Research (G), Hazen 26, Ottawa, Canada.

Paulson, D.R. and C.E. Jenner. 1971. Population structure in overwintering larval Odonata in North Carolina in relation to adult flight season. Ecology 52: 96-107.

Peterson, J. 1975. The seasonal regulation of two Sympetrum species (Odonata: Libellulidae) in a temporary pond. MSc thesis, University of Waterloo, Canada.

Pilon, J.-G. and M.J. Masseau, 1984. The effect of temperature on egg development in Zygoptera: a preliminary discussion. Advances in Odonatology 2: 177-193.

Pritchard, G. 1982. Life-history strategies in dragonflies and the colonization of North America by the genus Argia (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). Advances in Odonatology 1: 227-241.

Saunders, D.S. 2001.Geographical strains and selection for the diapause trait in Calliphora vicina, pp. 113-121. In D.L. Denlinger, J.M. Giebultowicz, and D.S. Saunders (Eds.), Insect Timing: Circadian Rhythmicity to Seasonality. Elsevier, Oxford.

Saunders, D.S. 2003. Insect Clocks. 3rd edition. Elsevier, London.

Sawchyn, W.W. 1971. Environmental controls in the seasonal succession and synchronisation of development in some pond species of damselflies. (Odonata: Zygoptera). PhD thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.

Sawchyn, W.W. and N.S. Church. 1973. The effects of temperature and photoperiod on diapause development in the eggs of four species of Lestes (Odonata: Zygoptera). Canadian Journal of Zoology 51: 1257-1265.

Sawchyn, W.W. and C. Gillott. 1974. The life histories of three species of Lestes (Odonata: Zygoptera) in Saskatchewan. The Canadian Entomologist 106: 1283-1293.

Sawchyn, W.W. and C. Gillott, 1975. The biology of two related species of coenagrionid dragonflies (Odonata: Zygoptera) in western Canada. The Canadian Entomologist 107: 119-128.

Sternberg, K. 1995. Influence of oviposition date and temperature upon embryonic development in Somatochlora alpestris and S. arctica (Odonata: Corduliidae). Journal of Zoology, London 235: 163- 174.

Tai, L.C.C. 1967. Biosystematic study of Sympetrum (Odonata: Libellulidae). PhD thesis, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana.

Tauber, M.J. and C.A. Tauber. 1970. Photoperiodic induction and termination of diapause in an insect: response to changing daylengths. Science 167: 170.

Tauber, M.J., C.A. Tauber, and S. Masaki. 1986. Seasonal Adaptations of Insects. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Trottier, R. 1971. Effect of temperature on the life-cycle of Anax junius Drury (Odonata: Aeshnidae) in Canada. The Canadian Entomologist 103: 1671-1683.

Walker, E.M. 1912. The North American dragonflies of the genus Aeshna. University of Toronto Studies, Biological Series.

Walker, E.M. 1925. The North American dragonflies of the genus Somatochlora. University of Toronto Studies, Biological Series.

Walker, E.M. 1943. The subarctic Odonata of North America. The Canadian Entomologist 75: 79-90.

Walker, E.M. 1953. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska. Volume 1. University of Toronto Press, Canada.

Walker, E.M. 1958. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska. Volume 2. University of Toronto Press, Canada.

Walker, E.M. and P.S. Corbet. 1978. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska. Volume 3. Reprinted with corrections. University of Toronto Press, Canada.

Wood, J.V. and B.J. Jaramillo. 2002. The Nautical Almanac for the year 2003. The Stationery Office, London.

Zaslavski, V.A. 1988. Insect Development: Photoperiodic and Temperature Control. Springer Verlag, New York.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.