Absence of photoperiod effects on mating and ovarian maturation by three haplotypes of potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

David Horton, Eugene Miliczky, Joseph E. Munyaneza, Kylie D. Swisher, Andrew S. Jensen


We examined the effects of photoperiod on reproductive diapause of three haplotypes of potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), collected from three geographic locations: south Texas (Central haplotype), California (Western haplotype), and Washington State (Northwestern haplotype). Psyllids were reared from egg hatch to adult eclosion under short- and long-day conditions, to determine whether short-days led to a lack of mating, delays in ovarian development, and accumulation of fat by female psyllids. Our expectation was that a reproductive response to short-days would be more likely to be exhibited by psyllids of the northern-latitude haplotype (Northwestern) than psyllids of the other two haplotypes. We also examined whether this species exhibited a photoperiod-controlled polymorphism in body size, as observed in other psyllid species, by comparing six body and wing measures of psyllids reared under short- and long-day conditions. Virtually 100% of females of each haplotype exhibited both egg maturation and mating at both long- and short-day conditions, providing no evidence that this species exhibits a photoperiod-induced reproductive diapause. Fat was present in most psyllids, although with higher probability of presence in short-day females than long-day females. Phortoperiod had no effect on body size. We found differences among haplotypes in body size, with psyllids from Washington State (Northwestern haplotype) having larger wings and longer tibiae than psyllids of the two southern populations. Our photoperiod results, combined with overwintering observations for this species and for other Triozidae, prompted us to hypothesize that potato psyllid -- at least in the Pacific Northwest growing region -- overwinters in a temperature-controlled quiescence rather than in a true diapause.


reproductive diapause; ovarian development; overwintering; Bactericera cockerelli

Full Text:



Carter, R.D. 1961. Distinguishing sexes in nymphs of the tomato psyllid, Paratrioza cockerelli. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 54: 464-465.

Conci, C., C. Rapisarda and L. Tamanini. 1996. Annotated catalogue of the Italian Psylloidea. Second Part (Insecta Homoptera). Atti Della Accademia Roveretana Degli Agiati (Ser VII) 5B: 5-207.

Crawford, D.L. 1911. American Psyllidae III (Triozinae). Pomona College Journal of Entomology 3: 422-453.

Crosslin, J.M., N. Olsen and P. Nolte. 2012a. First report of zebra chip disease and “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” on potatoes in Idaho. Plant Disease 96: 453.

Crosslin, J.M., P.B. Hamm, J.E. Eggers, S.I. Rondon, V.G. Sengoda and J.E. Munyaneza. 2012b. First report of zebra chip disease and “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” on potatoes in Oregon and Washington. Plant Disease 96: 452.

Essig, E.O. 1917. The tomato and laurel psyllids. Journal of Economic Entomology 10: 433-444.

Guédot, C., D.R. Horton, P.J. Landolt and J.E. Munyaneza. 2013. Effects of mating on sex attraction in Bactericera cockerelli with evidence of refractoriness. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 149: 27-35.

Hansen, A.K., J.T. Trumble, R. Stouthamer and T.D. Paine. 2008. A new Huanglongbing species, “Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous”, found to infect tomato and potato, is vectored by the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74: 5862-5865.

Hodkinson, I.D. 2009. Life cycle variation in jumping plant lice (Insecta: Hemiptera: Psylloidea): a global synthesis. Journal of Natural History 43: 65-179.

Horton, D.R., D.A. Broers, T. Hinojosa and T.M. Lewis. 1998a. Ovarian development in overwintering pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Homoptera: Psyllidae): seasonality and effects of photoperiod. The Canadian Entomologist 130: 859-867.

Horton, D.R., T.M. Lewis, T. Hinojosa and D.A. Broers. 1998b. Photoperiod and reproductive diapause in the predatory bugs Anthocoris tomentosus, A. antevolens, and Deraeocoris brevis (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae, Miridae) with information on overwintering sex ratios. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 91: 81-86.

Jensen, A.S., S.I. Rondon, A.F. Murphy and E. Echegaray. 2012. Overwintering of the potato psyllid in the Northwest on Solanum dulcamara. Proceedings of the 12th Annual SCRI Zebra Chip Reporting Session, San Antonio, TX. (http://zebrachipscri.tamu.edu/files/2013/04/2012-Proceedings.pdf)

Krysan, J.L. and B.S. Higbee. 1990. Seasonality of mating and ovarian development in overwintering Cacopsylla pyricola (Homoptera: Psyllidae). Environmental Entomology 19: 544-550.

Lauterer, P. 1982. New data on the occurrence, bionomics and taxonomy of some Czechoslovakian Psylloidea (Homoptera). Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae Naturales 67: 133-162.

Lauterer, P. 1991. Psyllids (Homoptera, Psylloidea) of the limestone cliff zone of the Pavlovské Vrchy Hills (Czechoslovakia). Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae Naturales 76: 241-263.

Lauterer, P. 1999. Results of the investigations on Hemiptera in Moravia, made by the Moravian museum (Psylloidea 2). Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae Biologicae (Brno) 84: 71-151.

Lauterer, P. 2011. Psyllids (Hemiptera, Psylloidea) inhabiting the canopy and shrub layer of an oak and hornbeam forest in Báb near Nitra (Slovakia). Folia Faunistica Slovaca 16: 97-101.

Lauterer, P. and I. Malenovský. 2002. New distributional and biological data on European Psylloidea (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha), with special reference to the fauna of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Entomologica Basiliensia 24: 161-177.

Liefting, L.W., Z.C. Perez-Egusquiza, G.R.G. Clover and J.A.D. Anderson. 2008. A new ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ species in Solanum tuberosum in New Zealand. Plant Disease 92: 1474.

Liefting, L.W., P.W. Sutherland, L.I. Ward, K.L. Paice, B.S. Weir and G.R.G. Clover. 2009. A new ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ species associated with diseases of solanaceous crops. Plant Disease 93: 208-214.

Liu, D. and J.T. Trumble. 2007. Comparative fitness of invasive and native populations of the potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 123: 35-42.

Liu, D., J.T. Trumble and R. Stouthamer. 2006. Genetic differentiation between eastern populations and recent introductions of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) into western North America. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 118: 177-183.

Mehrnejad, M.R. and M.J.W. Copland. 2005. The seasonal forms and reproductive potential of the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae (Hem., Psylloidea). Journal of Applied Entomology 129: 342-346.

Munyaneza, J.E. 2012. Zebra chip disease of potato: biology, epidemiology, and management. American Journal of Potato Research 89: 329-350.

Munyaneza, J.E., J.M. Crosslin and J.E. Upton. 2007. Association of Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) with “zebra chip”, a new potato disease in southwestern United States and Mexico. Journal of Economic Entomology 100: 656-663.

Munyaneza, J.E., J.M. Crosslin and J.L. Buchman. 2009. Seasonal occurrence and abundance of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, in south central Washington. American Journal of Potato Research 86: 513-518.

Murphy, A.F., S.I. Rondon and A.S. Jensen. 2013. First report of potato psyllids, Bactericera cockerelli, overwintering in the Pacific Northwest. American Journal of Potato Research 90: 294-296.

Nguyen, T.-X. 1967. Observations sur l’élimination de la diapause de Psylla pyri (Hom. Psyllidae) dans les conditions naturelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 3: 151-164.

Nguyen, T.-X. 1975. Évolution et elimination de la diapause ovarienne de Psylla pyri (Homoptera-Psyllidae) dans les conditions naturelles de la région Toulousaine. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 100: 241-246.

Nguyen, T.-X. 1985. Établissement d’une échelle morphométrique pour les Psyllidae (Insecta-Homoptera): polymorphisme saisonnier de Psylla pyri L. Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences Paris 301: 369-372.

Ossiannilsson, F. 1992. The Psylloidea (Homoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 26: 1-347

Pletsch, D.J. 1947. The potato psyllid Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc): its biology and control. Montana Experiment Station Bulletin 446; 95 pp.

Romney, V.E. 1939. Breeding areas of the tomato psyllid, Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc). Journal of Economic Entomology 32: 150-151.

SAS Institute. 2010. SAS 9.3 for Windows. SAS Institute, Cary, N.C.

Saulich, A. Kh. and D.L. Musolin. 2009. Seasonal development and ecology of anthocorids (Heteroptera, Anthocoridae). Entomological Review 89: 501-528.

Secor, G.A., V. Rivera-Varas, J.A. Abad, I.M. Lee, G.R.G. Clover, L.W. Liefting, X. Li and S.H. De Boer. 2009. Association of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ with zebra chip disease of potato established by graft and psyllid transmission, electron microscopy, and PCR. Plant Disease 93: 574-583.

Swisher, K.D., J.E. Munyaneza and J.M. Crosslin. 2012. High resolution melting analysis of the cytochrome oxidase I gene identifies three haplotypes of the potato psyllid in the United States. Environmental Entomology 41: 1019-1028.

Swisher, K.D., D.C. Henne and J.M. Crosslin. 2013a. Identification of a fourth haplotype of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, in the United States. Journal of Insect Science (in press).

Swisher, K.D., J.E. Munyaneza and J.M. Crosslin. 2013b. Temporal and spatial analysis of potato psyllid haplotypes in the United States. Environmental Entomology 42: 381-393.

Swisher, K.D., A.P. Arp, B.R. Bextine, E.Y. Aguilar-Alvarez, J.M. Crosslin and J.E. Munyaneza. 2013c. Haplotyping the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, in Mexico and Central America. Southwestern Entomologist 38: 201-208.

Swisher, K.D., V.G. Sengoda, J. Dixon, E. Echegaray, A.F. Murphy, S.I. Rondon, J.E. Munyaneza and J.M. Crosslin. 2013d. Haplotypes of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, on the wild host plant, Solanum dulcamara, in the Pacific Northwestern United States. American Journal of Potato Research 90: 570-577.

Teulon, D.A.J., P.J. Workman, K.L. Thomas and M.C. Nielsen. 2009. Bactericera cockerelli: incursion, dispersal and current distribution on vegetable crops in New Zealand. New Zealand Plant Protection 62: 136-144.

Wallis, R.L. 1946. Seasonal occurrence of the potato psyllid in the North Platte Valley. Journal of Economic Entomology 39: 689-694.

Wallis, R..L. 1955. Ecological studies on the potato psyllid as a pest of potatoes. USDA Technical Bulletin 1107; 24 pp.

Wong, T.T.Y. and H.F. Madsen. 1967. Laboratory and field studies on the seasonal forms of pear psylla in northern California. Journal of Economic Entomology 60: 163-168.


  • There are currently no refbacks.