Phenology of western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on plant species in and near apple orchards in Washington State

S. D. Cockfield, E. H. Beers, R. S. Zack

Abstract


Both orchard and adjacent native vegetation harboured adult western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), from early spring until fall. Frankliniella occidentalis made up the great majority of adults collected in flowers of most plant species sampled, including apple. Other species found on apple flowers included Anaphothrips obscurus Muller, which lives on grasses, and Thrips brevipilosus Moulton. A mixture of thrips species, including F. occidentalis, Scirtothrzps citri (Moulton), Thrips tabaci Lindeman, and Thrips treherni Preisner, occurred on apple shoots. Thrips were found in orchards as early as green tip (early April), with the highest concentrations of F. occidentalis in shoots occurring in June and July. Thrips declined in late summer as shoots formed dormant buds; however, some F. occidentalis adults were still found in early September. Five common woody plants and forbs selected for sampling in the sagebrush-steppe habitat had F. occidentalis adults present, especially during bloom. Western flower thrips can exploit open flowers or young shoots from spring through fall in native vegetation because of the diversity of plants and their different growth habits.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bailey, S.F. 1940. The distribution of injurious thrips in the United States. Journal of Economic Entomology 33: 133-136.

Beers, E.H., J.F. Brunner, M.J. Willet and G.M. Warner (eds.). 1993. Orchard pest management: a resource book for the Pacific Northwest. Good Fruit Grower, Yakima, WA.

Chellemi, D.O., J.E. Funderburk and D.W. Hall. 1994. Seasonal abundance of flower-inhabiting Frankliniella species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on wild plant species. Environmental Entomology 23: 337-342.

Childs, L. 1927. Two species of thrips injurious to apples in the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Economic Entomology 20: 805-809.

Felland, C.M., L.A. Hull, D.A.J. Teulon and E.A. Cameron. 1993. Overwintering of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Pennsylvania. The Canadian Entomologist 125: 971-973.

Kirk, W.D.J. and L.I. Terry. 2003. The spread of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). Agricultural and Forest Entomology 5: 301-310.

Lewis, T., L.A. Mound, S. Nakahara and C.C. Childers. 1997a. Field and laboratory techniques, pp. 435-476. In T. Lewis (ed.), Thrips as crop pests. CAB International, New York, NY.

Lewis, T., L.A. Mound, S. Nakahara and C.C. Childers. 1997b. Appendix II major crops infested by thrips with main symptoms and predominant injurious species, pp. 675-709. In T. Lewis (ed.), Thrips as crop pests. CAB International, New York, NY.

Madsen, H.F. and I.D. Jack. 1966. The relation of thrips to pansy spot on apples. The Canadian Entomologist 98: 903-908.

Moulton, D. 1927. Thysanoptera -- new species and notes. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 22: 181-202.

Newcomer, E.J. 1921. A thrips injury to apple. Better Fruit 16:10.

Pearsall, I.A. and J.H. Myers. 2000a. Population dynamics of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in nectarine orchards in British Columbia. Journal of Economic Entomology 93: 264-275.

Pearsall, I.A. and J.H. Myers. 2000b. Evaluation of sampling methodology for determining the phenology, relative density, and dispersion of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in nectarine orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology 93: 494-502.

Pearsall, I.A. and J.H. Myers. 2001. Spatial and temporal patterns of dispersal of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in nectarine orchards in British Columbia. Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 831-843.

Terry, L.I. 1991. Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) oviposition in apple buds: role of bloom state, blossom phenology, and population density. Environmental Entomology 20: 1568-1576.

Terry, L.I. 1997. Host selection, communication and reproductive behaviour, pp. 65-118. In T. Lewis (ed.), Thrips as crop pests. CAB International, New York, NY.

Toapanta, M., J. Funderburk, S. Webb, D. Chellemi and J. Tsai. 1996. Abundance of Frankliniella spp. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on winter and spring host plants. Environmental Entomology 25: 793-800.

Venables, E.P. 1925. Pansy spots on apple (a peculiar form of thrips injury). Proceedings of British Columbia Entomological Society 22: 9-12.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.