Mortality of five wireworm species (Coleoptera: Elateridae), following topical application of clothianidin and chlorpyrifos

W. G. van Herk, R. S. Vernon, M. Clodius, C. Harding, J. H. Tolman

Abstract


Five Wireworrn species (Agriotes obscurus, A. sputator, Limonius canus, Ctenicera destructor, and C. pruinina) were exposed to clothianidin and chlorpyrifos at various concentrations using a Potter Spray Tower to compare larval susceptibilities to these compounds. Wireworms were stored in containers with soil at 15 °C after insecticide exposure, and their post-application health was evaluated weekly for up to 140 days. Where possible, LC50, LC90, LT50, and LT90 values were calculated and the LC90 and LT90 values of chemical concentrations compared between species. Considerable differences in susceptibility to both chlorpyrifos and clothianidin were observed among species, with the LC90 of L. canus exposed to clothianidin being significantly higher than A. obscurus or A. sputator. Similarly, while the LC50 of A. sputator exposed to chlorpyrifos was similar to that of C. pruinina and A. obscurus assayed in previous studies (0.05, 0.10, 0.10%, respectively), there was low (12.5%) mortality of L. canus at the highest concentration tested (0.15%). There were considerable differences in the survival of various wireworm species after exposure to clothianidin at 0.15%, with the LT90 of L. canus (66.5 days) similar to those of C. pruinina and C. destructor (52.5, 59.5 days, respectively), but much shorter than those for A. obscurus or A. sputator (122.5, 115.5 days, respectively). Considerable differences in the induction of and recovery from morbidity induced by the chemicals were observed among species. Most larvae of A. sputator and A. obscurus exposed to chlorpyrifos were moribund before C. prumina larvae (4, 7, 42 days after exposure, respectively). Most (proportion = 0.86) larvae of L. canus recovered from morbidity induced by chlorpyrifos, but a high proportion (>08) of moribund A. sputator, A. obscurus, and C. pruinina died. Larvae of C. destructor and C. pruinina which were moribund after exposure to clothianidin at 0.15% died or recovered sooner than larvae of L. canus and A. obscurus. Together these results suggest that the efficacy of both clothianidin and chlorpyrifos for wireworm control in the field are affected by the wireworm species present.

Keywords


Agriotes obscurus; Limonius canus; wireworm; contact toxicity; insecticide; survival time

Full Text:

PDF

References


Becker, E.C. 1956. Revision of the Nearctic species of Agriotes (Coleoptera: Elateridae). The Canadian Entomologist 88, Supplement 1.

Bousquet, Y. (Ed.) 1991. Checklist of beetles of Canada and Alaska. Agriculture Canada Publication 1861/E, Ottawa, ON.

Burrage, R.H. 1963. Seasonal feeding of Ctenicera destructor and Hypolithus bicolor (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 56: 306-313.

Cox, D.R. and D. Oakes. 1984. Analysis of Survival Data. Chapman and Hall, London, UK.

Eidt, D.C. 1953. European wireworms in Canada with particular reference to Nova Scotian infestations. The Canadian Entomologist 85: 408-414.

Glen, R., K. King, and A.P. Arnason. 1943. The identification of wireworms of economic importance in Canada. Canadian Journal of Research 21: 358-378.

Glen, R. 1950. Larvae of the elaterid beetles of the tribe Leptuoidini (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 111, no. 11.

van Herk, W.G., R.S. Vernon, J.H. Tolman, H. Ortiz Saavedra. 2007. Mortality of a wireworm, Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), following topical application of various insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology (in press).

van Herk, W.G. and R.S. Vernon. 2007a. Morbidity and recovery of the Pacific Coast wireworm, Limonius canus, following contact with tefluthrin-treated wheat seeds. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 125: 111-127.

van Herk, W.G. and R.S. Vernon. 2007b. Soil bioassay for observing the orientation, feeding, repellency, and post-contact toxicity behaviours of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) exposed to insecticide treated wheat seed. Environmental Entomology (in press)

Hall, D.G. and R.H. Cherry. 1985. Contact toxicities of eight insecticides to the wireworm Melanotus communis (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Florida Entomologist 68: 350-352.

Horton, D.R. and P.J. Landolt. 2001. Use of Japanese-beetle traps to monitor flight of the Pacific coast wireworm, Limonius canus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) and effects of trap height and color. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 98: 235-242.

Kuhar, T.P., J. Speese III, J. Whalen, J.M. Alvarez, A. Alyokhin, G. Ghidiu, and M.R. Spellman. 2003. Current status of insecticidal control of wireworms in potatoes. Pesticide Outlook 14: 265-267.

Lagasa, E.H., S. Welch, T. Murray, and J. Wraspir. 2006. 2005 Western Washington Delimiting Survey for Agriotes obscurus and A. lineatus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), Exotic Wireworm Pests New to the United States. Agricultural Publication 805-144, Washington State Department of Agriculture, Olympia, Washington.

Lanchester, H.P. 1946. Larval determination of six economic species of Limonius (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 39: 619-626.

SAS Institute Inc. 2002. SAS/STAT user’s guide, Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, North Carolina.

Southwood, T.R.E. 1978. Ecological methods with particular reference to the study of insect populations, 2nd Edition. Methuen & Co., London, U.K.

Subklew, W. 1934. Agriotes lineatus L. und A. obscurus L. (Ein beitrag zu ihrer morphologie und biologie.) Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie 21: 96-122.

Vernon, R.S., E. Lagasa, and H. Philip. 2001. Geographic and temporal distribution of Agriotes obscurus and A. lineatus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in British Columbia and Washington as determined by pheromone trap surveys. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 98: 257-265.

Vernon, R.S., W.G. van Herk, J. Tolman, H. Ortiz Saavedra, M. Clodius, and B. Gage. 2007. Transitional sublethal and lethal effects of insecticides following dermal exposures to five economic species of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Journal of Economic Entomology (in press).

Wilkinson, A.T.S. 1963. Wireworm problems of cultivated land in British Columbia. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 60: 3-17.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.